Abstract

Distributed strain sensing with millimeter-order spatial resolution is demonstrated in optical fibers based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. A novel beat lock-in detection scheme is introduced to suppress background noises coming from the reflection of Brillouin pump waves. The Brillouin frequency shifts of 3mm fiber sections are successfully measured with a theoretical spatial resolution of 1.6mm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, Opt. Express 14, 4256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2003 (1)

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405 (2000).

1996 (1)

Abe, K.

K. Hotate and K. Abe, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alahbabi, M. N.

Arai, H.

K. Hotate and H. Arai, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Chen, L.

Cho, Y. T.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405 (2000).

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, Opt. Express 14, 4256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and K. Abe, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and H. Arai, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405 (2000).

Newson, T. P.

Nikles, M.

Ong, S. S. L.

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Song, K. Y.

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, Z. He, and K. Hotate, Opt. Express 14, 4256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Wan, Y.

Zou, L.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Hotate and K. Abe, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and H. Arai, in Proc. SPIE 5855, 184 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Operation scheme of the BOCDA system: BG, Brillouin gain; Δ ν , frequency offset between pump and probe waves. (b) Schematic of beat lock-in detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the BOCDA system using a beat lock-in scheme. Inset A, optical spectrum of the LD through the IM: LD, laser diode; IM, intensity modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; SSBM, single-sideband modulator; PSW, polarization switch; PD, photodiode; FUT, fiber under test.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structures of the fibers under test (top) and the measurement results (bottom) in (a) FUT-1 and (b) FUT-2 composed of several spliced sections of different fibers. Note that the ν B values of SMF1, SMF2, and DSF are 10.82, 10.80, and 10.52 GHz , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Brillouin gain spectrum at each section of different fibers in FUT-1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FUT-3 prepared by fixing SMF1 on the translation stage using epoxy. (b) Results of distributed measurement on FUT-3 with elongations of 30, 60, 90, and 120 μ m . Inset, magnified view around the peak position of the 60 μ m case. The 3 - mm pure fiber section is indicated by dashed lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Shift of ν B at the pure fiber section of FUT-3 as a function of (a) nominal strain and (b) effective strain. Note that the effective strain is calibrated considering the areas under the graphs in Fig. 5b.

Equations (2)

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d m = V g 2 f m ,
Δ z = V g Δ ν B 2 π f m Δ f ,

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