Abstract

We report a novel method to enhance the performance of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system based on the intensity modulation of light source. The suppression and the modification of the background noise in Brillouin gain spectrum is experimentally demonstrated with different intensity modulation schemes. In an optimum configuration, the signal to noise ratio is improved more than 40%, which extends the measurable strain limit and leads to the substantial increase of measurement range.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, "Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis," Opt. Lett. 21, 758-760 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Bao, M. DeMerchant, A. Brown and T. Bremner, "Tensile and compressive strain measurement in the lab and field with the distributed Brillouin scattering sensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1698-1704 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, "150-km-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter and in-line Raman amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1321-1324 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique—proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405-412 (2000).
  6. K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-cased continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272-274 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499-501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Hotate and K. Abe, "BOCDA fiber optic distributed strain sensing system with a polarization diversity scheme for enlargement of measurement range," in Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-17), M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 591-594 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber-optic stress-location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1715-1723 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499-501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber-optic stress-location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1715-1723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-cased continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique—proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405-412 (2000).

1996

1990

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alahbabi, M. N.

Bao, X.

Bremner, T.

Brown, A.

Cho, Y. T.

DeMerchant, M.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique—proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405-412 (2000).

He, Z.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hotate, K.

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499-501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-cased continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. He and K. Hotate, "Distributed fiber-optic stress-location measurement by arbitrary shaping of optical coherence function," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1715-1723 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique—proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405-412 (2000).

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

Nikles, M.

Ong, S. S. L.

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P.

Song, K. Y.

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499-501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-cased continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima and M. Tateda, "A technique to measure distributed strain in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 352-354 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and M. Tanaka, "Distributed fiber Brillouin strain sensing with 1-cm spatial resolution by correlation-cased continuous-wave technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 197-199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate and S. S. L. Ong, "Distributed dynamic strain measurement using a correlation-based Brillouin sensing system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 272-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "Enlargement of measurement range in a Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis system using double lock-in amplifiers and a single-sideband modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 499-501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

K. Hotate and T. Hasegawa, "Measurement of Brillouin gain spectrum distribution along an optical fiber using a correlation-based technique—proposal, experiment and simulation," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 405-412 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

K. Hotate and K. Abe, "BOCDA fiber optic distributed strain sensing system with a polarization diversity scheme for enlargement of measurement range," in Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-17), M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones and B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 591-594 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a Brillouin correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) system. Measured Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) is the sum of local BGS’s (LBGS); Δν, frequency offset between pump and probe waves. (b) Variation of the BGS in response to the applied strain to the sensing (correlation peak) position. Note that the maximum measurable strain (dashed line) is limited by the peak of the background noise and that the measurable strain limit is decreased in longer measurement range (lower) than the shorter case (upper). Δν is the relative frequency offset with the initial value set to zero.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Experimental setup of the BOCDA system with the intensity modulation scheme applied: LD, laser diode; FUT, fiber under test; PD, photodiode. (b) Structure of the fiber under test composed of several sections of dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) and standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Note that the length of the DSF section (30 cm) and the overall length (~305 m) were set to the nominal spatial resolution and the maximum range determined by the modulation parameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Power spectra measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with intensity modulation schemes (IM 1~3) applied in addition to the initial frequency modulation (No IM). (b) Time waveforms showing the synchronization between the frequency modulation of the LD (black) and the transmittance of the intensity modulator (red) applied to generate a flat-top spectrum (IM 1) shown in (a). Note that the other waveforms (IM 2~3) are synchronized in the same way.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Brillouin gain spectra measured on the DSF and the SMF sections using several intensity modulation schemes shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison between the measured BGS’s of the DSF (a) and the SMF (b) sections in no intensity modulation (No IM) and the optimum modulation (IM 3) cases. Note that the BGS’s were rescaled to the same signal amplitudes in the DSF sections and the same scale factor was also applied for the comparison of the SMF sections.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Result of distributed measurement on the fiber under test near the DSF sections. The DSF sections are properly detected only in the optimum intensity modulation (IM 3). The measurement inaccuracy of the νB at each position was about +/-3 MHz.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ z = V g · Δ ν B 2 π f m · Δ f , d m = V g 2 f m ,

Metrics