Abstract

A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510–570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is 12m/s, with some channels reaching 5m/s.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

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1979 (1)

J. Tonry and M. Davis, Astrophys. J. 84, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf in Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980), pp. 333–335.

Chen, H.

Chen, Z.

Cochran, W.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R. E.

Davis, M.

J. Tonry and M. Davis, Astrophys. J. 84, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

De Lee, N.

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

DeWitt, C.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Endl, M.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C.

Erskine, D.

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Finnerty, P.

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ford, E.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, J.

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J.

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

X. Wan, J. Ge, and Z. Chen, Appl. Opt. 50, 4105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, Appl. Opt. 49, 5645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

D. Erskine and J. Ge, in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W. van Breugel and J. Bland-Hawthorn, eds. (2000), Vol. 195, p. 501.

Gentry, B. M.

Guo, P.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J.

Henry, G.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heuvel, A. Vanden

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Israelian, G.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kane, S. R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Li, S. X.

Mahadevan, S.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montes, D.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Myers, D.

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

Post, M. J.

Powell, S.

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

Ramsey, L.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, D.

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonry, J.

J. Tonry and M. Davis, Astrophys. J. 84, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Valenti, J.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Eyken, J.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

X. Wan, J. Ge, and Z. Chen, Appl. Opt. 50, 4105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, Appl. Opt. 49, 5645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Wang, J.

X. Wan, J. Wang, and J. Ge, Appl. Opt. 49, 5645 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Wittenmyer, R.

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf in Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980), pp. 333–335.

Zugger, M.

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astrophys. J. (2)

J. Ge, J. Van Eyken, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, S. R. Kane, R. Cohen, A. Vanden Heuvel, S. Fleming, P. Guo, G. Henry, D. Schneider, L. Ramsey, R. Wittenmyer, M. Endl, W. Cochran, E. Ford, E. Martin, G. Israelian, J. Valenti, and D. Montes, Astrophys. J. 648, 683 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Tonry and M. Davis, Astrophys. J. 84, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Van Eyken, J. Ge, S. Mahadevan, C. DeWitt, J. Friedman, P. Finnerty, D. Ren, and M. Zugger, Proc. SPIE 5492, 445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ge, X. Wan, D. Myers, and S. Powell, Proc. SPIE 8450 (2012).

Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. Wang, J. Ge, X. Wan, B. Lee, and N. De Lee, “Accurate group delay measurement for radial velocity instruments using the dispersed fixed delay interferometer method,” Pub. Astro. Soc. Pac. (to be published).

Other (3)

D. Erskine and J. Ge, in Imaging the Universe in Three Dimensions, W. van Breugel and J. Bland-Hawthorn, eds. (2000), Vol. 195, p. 501.

M. Born and E. Wolf in Principles of Optics, 6th ed.(Pergamon, 1980), pp. 333–335.

L. Wallace, K. Hinkle, and W. C. Livingston, “The solar flux spectrum, visible and near infrared,” http://diglib.nso.edu/Wallace_2011_solar_flux_atlas.html .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Instrument configuration and experimental arrangement. Inlets illustrate the approximate end views of the fiber arrays.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured sample spectrum comparing generated templates at four phase steps. Four discrete regions within the wide wavelength range are shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Computed correlation coefficient as a function of phase shift and a Sine fit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Doppler shifts of five selected IFU channels alternate when the motor turns on and off. Waveforms are vertically shifted for illustration purpose.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(left) Processed Doppler image of the spinning simulator and (right) the intensity image.

Equations (2)

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T m , n ( ν ) = S ( ν ) * ( 1 + V i cos ( ϕ n 0 ( ν ) + m * Δ ϕ * ν / ν c ) ,
V = C * δ ϕ / d ϕ 0 ( ν ) d ν | ν c ,

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