Abstract

An implementation of the field widened Michelson concept has been applied to obtain high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of low velocity (<50m/s) Doppler wind fields in the lab. Procedures and techniques have been developed that allow Doppler wind and irradiance measurements to be determined on a bin by bin basis with an accuracy of less than 2.5m/s from CCD images over the observed field of view. The interferometer scanning mirror position is controlled to subangstrom precision with subnanometer repeatability using the multi-application low-voltage piezoelectric instrument control electronics developed by COM DEV Ltd.; it is the first implementation of this system as a phase stepping Michelson. In this paper the calibration and characterization of the Doppler imaging system is described and the planned implementation of this new technique for imaging 2D wind and irradiance fields using the earth’s airglow is introduced. Observations of Doppler winds produced by a rotating wheel are reported and shown to be of sufficient precision for buoyancy wave observations in airglow in the mesopause region of the terrestrial atmosphere.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

C. Anderson, M. Conde, and M. G. McHarg, “Neutral thermospheric dynamics observed with two scanning Doppler imagers: 1. Monostatic and bistatic winds,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, A03304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

2004 (1)

A. Scott, R. Norman, and L. Zhou, “Tunable etalons and other applications of MALICE,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41 (1), 1003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, and P. Rothwell, “Observations of gravity wave propagation in the OI (557.5 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the near infra-red OH nightglow emission,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

1980 (1)

1966 (1)

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 56, 362–368 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, R.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M. J.

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41 (1), 1003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C.

C. Anderson, M. Conde, and M. G. McHarg, “Neutral thermospheric dynamics observed with two scanning Doppler imagers: 1. Monostatic and bistatic winds,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, A03304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aruliah, A. L.

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, D.

D. Babcock, “Mesospheric imaging Michelson interferometer: instrument development and observations,” PhD thesis, York University, Ontario (2003).

Barton, E.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bershady, M.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, A.

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conde, M.

C. Anderson, M. Conde, and M. G. McHarg, “Neutral thermospheric dynamics observed with two scanning Doppler imagers: 1. Monostatic and bistatic winds,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, A03304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. H.

A. H. Cook, Interference of Electromagnetic Waves (Clarendon, 1971).

Cosgrove, R. B.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crampton, D.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duboin, M.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eikenberry, S.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ejiri, M. K.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S. J.

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fritts, D. C.

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41 (1), 1003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

Gladders, M.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glazebrook, K.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, E. M.

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hapgood, M. A.

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, and P. Rothwell, “Observations of gravity wave propagation in the OI (557.5 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the near infra-red OH nightglow emission,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, J. W.

Heinselman, C. J.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hersé, M.

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hilliard, R. L.

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 56, 362–368 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jenson, J.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, S. F.

Julian, J.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Julian, R.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, T. D.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, M. C.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, S. F. Johnston, and D. J. W. Kendall, “Optimization of a field-widened Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1604–1608 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kneib, J.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Kubota, M.

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Lathuillère, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, T.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Z.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loop, D.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I. C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McHarg, M. G.

C. Anderson, M. Conde, and M. G. McHarg, “Neutral thermospheric dynamics observed with two scanning Doppler imagers: 1. Monostatic and bistatic winds,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, A03304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McWhirter, I.

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mentuch, E.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Nakamura, T.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Nicolls, M. J.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Norman, R.

A. Scott, R. Norman, and L. Zhou, “Tunable etalons and other applications of MALICE,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Otsuka, Y.

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Pasturczyk, Z.

Raines, N.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, H. E.

Rochon, Y. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rothwell, P.

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, and P. Rothwell, “Observations of gravity wave propagation in the OI (557.5 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the near infra-red OH nightglow emission,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, N.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Scott, R. Norman, and L. Zhou, “Tunable etalons and other applications of MALICE,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier and G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, and G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnston, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, and J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1584 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 56, 362–368 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere (Elsevier Academic, 2003).

Shepherd, M. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, K.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, S. K.

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Smith, J. D.

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stamus, P. A.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Swenson, G. R.

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. J.

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, and P. Rothwell, “Observations of gravity wave propagation in the OI (557.5 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the near infra-red OH nightglow emission,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier and M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier and G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michelson interferometer of fixed-path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Title, A. M.

Tsutsumi, M.

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

Vadas, S. L.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Varney, R. H.

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, and G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, “Design/Implementation of a WAMI to observe thermospheric winds,” PhD thesis, York University, Ontario (1988).

Wimperis, J. R.

Yiu, H.-C. I.

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

A. Scott, R. Norman, and L. Zhou, “Tunable etalons and other applications of MALICE,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

A. L. Aruliah, E. M. Griffin, H.-C. I. Yiu, I. McWhirter, and A. Charalambous, “SCANDI—an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure,” Ann. Geophys. 28, 549–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Earth Planets Space (1)

S. Suzuki, S. K. Shiokawa, Y. Otsuka, T. Ogawa, M. Kubota, M. Tsutsumi, T. Nakamura, and D. C. Fritts, “Gravity wave momentum flux in the upper mesosphere derived from OH airglow imaging measurements,” Earth Planets Space 59, 421–428 (2007).

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

X. Lu, A. Z. Liu, G. R. Swenson, T. Li, T. Leblanc, and I. S. McDermid, “Gravity wave propagation and dissipation from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Nicolls, R. H. Varney, S. L. Vadas, P. A. Stamus, C. J. Heinselman, R. B. Cosgrove, and M. C. Kelley, “Influence of an inertia—gravity wave on mesospheric dynamics: a case study with the Poker flat incoherent scatter radar,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00N02 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Anderson, M. Conde, and M. G. McHarg, “Neutral thermospheric dynamics observed with two scanning Doppler imagers: 1. Monostatic and bistatic winds,” J. Geophys. Res. 117, A03304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Ejiri, M. J. Taylor, T. Nakamura, and S. J. Franke, “Critical level interaction of a gravity wave with background winds driven by a large-scale wave perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D18117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, M. K. Ejiri, M. Tsutsumi, K. Shiokawa, and T. D. Kawahara, “Simultaneous airglow, lidar, and radar measurements of mesospheric gravity waves over Japan,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D24113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

R. L. Hilliard and G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 56, 362–368 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

M. J. Taylor, M. A. Hapgood, and P. Rothwell, “Observations of gravity wave propagation in the OI (557.5 nm), Na (589.2 nm) and the near infra-red OH nightglow emission,” Planet. Space Sci. 35, 413–427 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Scott, R. Norman, and L. Zhou, “Tunable etalons and other applications of MALICE,” Proc. SPIE 5492, 1755 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Mentuch, A. Scott, R. Abraham, E. Barton, M. Bershady, J. Bland-Hawthorn, D. Crampton, R. Doyon, S. Eikenberry, M. Gladders, K. Glazebrook, J. Jenson, J. Julian, R. Julian, J. Kneib, D. Loop, N. Raines, N. Rowlands, and J. D. Smith, “Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 filter: a tunable filter designed to search for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (2)

D. C. Fritts and M. J. Alexander, “Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,” Rev. Geophys. 41 (1), 1003 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, and W. E. Ward, “The wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite: a 20 year perspective,” Rev. Geophys. 50, RG2007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Babcock, “Mesospheric imaging Michelson interferometer: instrument development and observations,” PhD thesis, York University, Ontario (2003).

G. G. Shepherd, Spectral Imaging of the Atmosphere (Elsevier Academic, 2003).

A. H. Cook, Interference of Electromagnetic Waves (Clarendon, 1971).

W. E. Ward, “Design/Implementation of a WAMI to observe thermospheric winds,” PhD thesis, York University, Ontario (1988).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Idealized Gaussian line spectrum and the interferogram showing an exaggerated phase change due to a Doppler shift in the source line center.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MIADI interferometer schematic (glass types and lengths of t1, t2, and t3 are listed in Table 1). Image provided by DB Reflections.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MIADI path variation in fringes and MIADI phase gradient in fringes/deg. (Plots produced using design report provided by DB Reflections under contract to William Ward.)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of the geometric placement of capacitors (C) and piezo electric posts (PZT) in the mirror side of the air gap arm of the MIADI interferometer is shown in (a) and the corresponding three channel capacitance bridge system formed by the arrangement is shown in (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical schematic for producing the 2D Doppler wind fields in the lab.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MIADI optical schematic. The input optical system is shown in (a) and the output optical system is shown in (b). The interferometer is folded out in both images.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic of the setup used to calibrate MIADI parallelism and gap size.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Four MIADI interferograms used to determine the path difference of the calibrated stepping region. The CCD intensity is plotted against the calibrated mirror steps obtained from applying the iterative LMS algorithm described in Section 2.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spatial path variation measured (in waves) across the MIADI end mirrors. The diameter of the mirror is 5 cm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Thermal drift of MIADI over a 240 min interval while observing the spectrally isolated Kr lamp emission at 850.887 nm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Exaggerated image of the MIADI sky viewing array (in white) shown on top of an all sky image of the perturbations in the mesospheric nightglow due to buoyancy waves (Image courtesy of C. Vail (UNB)).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Expected wind precision versus SNR at the MIADI target emissions. (The broken curve corresponds to 843 nm and the solid curve corresponds to 557 nm in blue). A solid line is drawn at 2m/s to define the required SNR for 2D imaging of mesospheric buoyancy waves with MIADI.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Measurement sequence used for the lab testing.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Measured wind velocity for single point measurements is plotted versus the expected wind velocity. A line of best fit is drawn and the fit equation along with the computed errors in the fit parameters is given.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Thermal drift in m/s during the 2D wind field measurements is plotted against time. The zero wind measurements are denoted by triangles (blue) and the interpolated thermal drift correction for the Doppler measurements are denoted by circles (red).

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Average zero wind (stationary wheel) background phase used to obtain the 2D Doppler winds.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Expected 2D Doppler wind field across the wheel (units in m/s).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Measured 2D Doppler wind field across the wheel (units in m/s).

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Histogram of the difference between the expected wind field across the wheel and the one that was measured. The standard deviation of the distribution is 2.5m/s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. MIADI Interferometer Specifications

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(Δ)=I(1+Vcos[2πσΔ(θ)]),
V=UV(Δ,T)=ImaxIminImax+Imin.
V(Δ,T)=exp[(π·η(T)·Δ)24·ln(2)].
δϕ=2πσ[Δ(σ)+σdΔdσ]wc=2πσDwc.
Φ=2πσΔ(θ)+δϕ+δT=Φ+δϕ+δT.
σw=(2a)cλ2πD(UV)(SNR).
w=4πfcos(θ)rcos[α(x,y)].
S=1064πIAΩbinτηt.

Metrics