Abstract

We reported photochromism and largely enhanced visible two-photon luminescence (TPL) of Ag-TiO2 granular composite films by using ps/fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. Three types of photochromism spectra were observed when the Ag atom fraction are less than, comparable to and larger than the percolation threshold. The strong surface-plasmon-resonance enhanced visible TPL emissions near Ag2O transition band from the photoactivated Ag-TiO2 samples were also observed. Furthermore, we found that the TPL intensity saturatedly increased while the absorbance at 800 nm exponentially decreased with the same rate as the increasing of photoactivation time, which means that both photochromism and TPL of Ag-TiO2 composite films are originated from the photo-oxidation of Ag to Ag+. These observations exhibit the multifunctional features of Ag nanoparticle materials.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Noble metal nanoparticles have been the subject of extensive research. Silver nanoparticles and the composite materials exhibit various promising optical properties, such as surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) effect [1,2], photoluminescence in the visible region [3–6], and reversible multicolor photochromism [7–10], which open a wide range of possible applications from biosensors to optical storage and information processes [11–13]. Excitation of SPRs of noble nanoparticles can create strong local optical field, which leads to various optical enhancement effects, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering [14–16], enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity [17–20], and enhanced luminescence [21–25]. Several methods have been proposed to adjust the SPR band of Ag nanoparticle materials in a wide region from visible to near infrared (NIR) wavelength [16,26–31]. It is well known that Ag+ can be photo-reduced with UV light or thermal-reduced to Ag [4,32,33], and Ag nanoparticles can also be thermal-oxidated or photo-oxidated to Ag+ with visible light [3]. The strong luminescence from Ag-Ag2O unit with an appropriate ratio of Ag/Ag2O has been reported by using a visible excitation source [4,33].

Here we reported photochromism and visible two-photon luminescence (TPL) of Ag nanoparticles embedded in TiO2 films by using ps/fs laser pulses in near infrared range 800~900 nm. We also investigated the changes of the Ag particle size and shape, transmittance and reflectivity of the photoactivated Ag-TiO2 film samples, comparatively analyzed the decreasing of absorbance and the increasing of TPL intensity as a function of photoactivated time, revealed the originated relationship of the photochromism effect and the TPL emissions of Ag-TiO2 granular composite films.

2. Experimental

A series of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite films with Ag volume fraction q Ag 0.26~0.82 were prepared by co-sputtering technique with a Ti target (Φ 100 mm, purity 99.999%) attached with several pieces of pure Ag symmetrically. The Ag granular composite films were deposited onto the glass substrate in Ar atmosphere at the pressure of 3.0×10-2 Torr, and the base pressure of the sputtering chamber was 1.1×10-4 Torr. The value of q Ag was controlled by adjusting the area ratio of Ti and Ag and checked by EDAX. The morphologies of the samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorbance spectra were recorded by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer (Cary 5000, Varian). The photochromism and two-photon luminescence were investigated by a Ti:Sapphire laser (Mira 900, Coherent) using pulse duration of ~2.5 ps and 130 fs, respectively. The TPL of the samples was collected in reflective mode and the photoluminescence spectra were recorded by a LN cooled CCD detector (SPEC-10, Princeton) through a monochromator (Spectrapro 2500i, Acton).

3. Results and Discussion

The size and the fraction of Ag nanoparticles in the granular composites prepared by sputtering technique were adjusted in a large range. The size of the Ag nanoparticles in the as-deposited Ag-TiO2 composite film with atom fraction q Ag=0.34 is about 20~50 nm estimated from TEM image (see Fig. 1(a)), which decreases by ~7% in average after the photoactivation by ps pulses for 2300 s with irradiation intensity I irr=0.21 MW/cm2 (see Fig. 1(b)). The ratio of the long axis to the short axis of the photoactivated Ag nanoparticles decreases by ~8% in average. The electron-diffraction pattern of the selected area of the Ag-TiO2 film shows the diffraction rings attributed to the Ag particles.

 

Fig. 1. Nanostructure and optical absorption of Ag-TiO2 composite films. (a) TEM image of as-deposited Ag-TiO2 granular composite film with q Ag=034. The size of Ag nanoparticles is in the range of 20 ~ 50 nm. (b) TEM image of the same sample photoactivated by ps laser pulses at the wavelength of 800 nm for 2300 s with intensity I irr=0.21 MW/cm2. The average size of the photoactivated Ag particles decreases by about 7%. (c) Optical absorbance spectra of the samples with q Ag=0.28, 0.48 and 0.64 with (dash lines) and without (solid lines) photoactivated.

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Figure 1(c) shows three types of photochromism spectra of Ag-TiO2 composite films with the Ag atom fraction q Ag 0.34, 0.48 and 0.64, which are less than, comparable to and larger than the percolation threshold q c=0.42, respectively. For the sample with q Ag=0.34 (<q c), the absorbance of photoactivated Ag-TiO2 film decreased in the long wavelength range 600 nm ~ 1200 nm and increased in the short wavelength 360 nm ~ 600 nm. For the sample with q Ag=0.48 (≈q c), the absorbance of photoactivated film decreased in the whole recorded wavelength range 380 ~ 1200 nm. For the sample with q Ag=0.64 (>q c), the absorbance decreased in the range 450 ~ 1200 nm and did not changed significantly in the range 360 nm ~ 450 nm. The decreasing of absorbance in the broad band wavelength range including the photoactivating laser source 800 nm observed in all Ag samples is caused by the photo-oxidation of Ag to Ag+ [7,9,10]. The increasing of SPR enhanced absorbance near 450 nm observed in the sample with small Ag fraction may be caused by the decreasing of aspect ratio of larger Ag nanoparticles, the increasing of smaller spherical Ag nanoparticles and the formation of Ag-Ag2O core-shell structure generated in the photoactivation process.

The photochromism of Ag-TiO2 was carried out by using laser pulses with pulsewidth ~2.5 ps at the wavelength of 800 nm (the reverse processes with UV light was not involved in this study). Fig. 2(a) is the dependence of the transmittance T and reflectivity R on photoactivating time t irr at λ=800 nm. It clearly shows that the transmittance T increases and the reflectivity R decreases with the increasing of photoactivatimg time t irr. As a result, the pure absorbance (α= -ln(T/(1-R))) decreases rapidly from 1.46 to 1.16 at t irr=30 s (see Fig. 2(b)). The relation α~t irr can be well fitted by the two-component exponential decay form,

α=a0+a1etirrt1+a2etirrt2

The decreasing of absorbance is caused by the oxidation of Ag to Ag+. The fast process is attributed to the photo-oxidation and the slow process perhaps is caused by the photo-thermal effect with ps pulses. The slow process described in Eq. (1) is not observed in the photoactivation with fs pulses.

 

Fig. 2. Photochromism dynamics of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by ps laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) Dependence of transmittance and reflectivity at 800nm on photoactivating time t irr. (b) Dependence of pure absorbance at 800nm on t irr.

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The Ag-TiO2 samples were also photoactivated by fs pulses at the wavelength of 800 nm. The photoactivated samples excited by the same fs laser at the same wavelength generated strong visible two-photon luminescence (TPL) near 552 nm. To further investigate the dynamics of photoactivation of Ag nanoparticles and the underlying physical and chemical mechanism, we recorded the TPL as a function of photoactivating time t irr. The TPL emissions were collected in reflective mode (see Fig. 3(a)). The TPL of Ag nanoparticles without photoactivation (t irr=0) is very weak, and it increases with increasing of photoactivating time t irr and reaches the saturation (see Fig. 3(b) and 3(c)). The TPL intensity increases from 150 to about 2900 by 200s photoactivation with peak irradiating intensity I irr=17.3 MW/cm2. The recorded I TPF ~ t irr curves are well fitted by

ITPL(tirr)=Is(1etirrts)

where I s is the saturation value of TPL, which is approximately proportional to I 2 irr. t s is the saturable increasing constant, which is inverse proportional to irradiating intensity I irr as shown in Fig. 3(c). The TPL intensity I TPL increased fast and reached rapidly to the saturation with large photoactivating intensity I irr.

 

Fig. 3. Photoactivation and two-photo luminescence (TPL) of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) Illumination of the setup for the TPL recording. (b) The TPL peak intensity of the film with q Ag=0.48 as a function of photoactivating time t irr. The photoactivating intensity I irr equal to 10.4 MW/cm2, 14.4 MW/cm2 and 17.3 MW/cm2, respectively. (c) The saturable increasing constant t s of the TPL as a function of I irr, t s is inverse proportional to I irr.

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The emission peaks of TPL as shown in Fig. 4(a) are very similar to the observations of one-photon luminescence (OPL) in Ag-exchanged glass. The emissions around 552 nm were explained by the band-to-band radiative transition in Ag2O with the band gap 2.25 eV[3,4]. The full width at half maximum (HMFW) of TPL in Ag-TiO2 is about 90 nm, which is about 30 nm smaller than the OPL in Ag-exchanged glass due to the depressing of emissions from small Ag nanoparticles centered at 637 nm (1.95 eV)[4].

 

Fig. 4. Two-photo luminescence (TPL) of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) TPL spectra of the film with q Ag=0.48 recorded after the photoactivating time t irr= 450 s. The photoactivating intensity I irr is equal to 17.3 MW/cm2. (b) The dependence of the TPL intensity I TPL on the excitation power I irr.

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The dependence of the TPL intensity I TPL on the excitation power I irr is shown in Fig. 4(c). The slope of ln(I TPL) ~ ln(I irr) is about 2.2, which indicates that the recorded photoluminescence from photoactivated Ag nanoparticles is generated by the two-photon absorbance processes.

Considering that the exciton absorbance of Ag2O was not observed during the photoactivation and the TPL emission from pure Ag2O and pure Ag were too weak, we thought that a portion of metallic Ag nanoparticles was photo-oxidized to Ag2O and the luminescence unit Ag-Ag2O is generated during the photoactivation process, the up-levels of photoactivated Ag and Ag2O were involved in the two-photon excitation processes, and the excited electrons on the up-levels relaxes to the lower-level of Ag2O, then the radiative transitions in Ag2O emit photons near 552 nm.

The TPL of a series of Ag-TiO2 samples with Ag fraction q Ag in the range 0.28 ~ 0.64 were recorded and shown in Fig. 5(a) and 5(b), it reached the maximum at q Ag=0.42. For the two-photon induced luminescence, the emission intensity I TPL and the peak excitation intensity I exc=I irr has the relationship

ITPLωemiωirrqAg=AqAgfωemiqAg2fωirrqAg4Iirr2

where A is a proportional constant and f is localized SPR enhancement factor, ω emi and ω irr represent the circular frequency of emission and excitation light, respectively. The previous studies on the third-order optical susceptibility χ (3) have revealed that the enhancement factor ∣f(ω irr;q Ag)∣ reaches the maximum near the percolation threshold q c[30,34], which leads to a efficient TPL emission of Ag-TiO2 granular composites near the percolation threshold q Ag=0.42. For comparison, the TPL of Ag-SiO2 granular composite was also recorded. The TPL intensity of Ag-TiO2 is about 50 times stronger than that of Ag-SiO2 due to the stronger local field enhancement.

 

Fig. 5. TPL of Ag-TiO2 samples. (a) Normalized TPL spectra of the samples with q Ag=0.28, 0.34, 0.42 and 0.48, which is excited by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (b) Normalized I TPF as a function of q Ag with excitation intensity I irr=16.5 MW/cm2.

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4. Conclusions

Ag-TiO2 granular composite exhibits a large decreasing of absorbance in a wide wavelength range and three types of photochromism spectra with the photoactivation of ultrafast laser pulses at 800 nm. The photoactivated Ag nanoparticles in the TiO2 film generate strong photoluminescence with two-photon absorbance. The TPL intensity is largely enhanced by the SPR absorbance located around the excitation and emission wavelengths. As the photoactivation time increases, the absorbance of Ag-TiO2 films decrease exponentially and the TPL intensity increases saturatedly with the same rate, which indicates that both photoactivation process in TPL emission and the photochromism are attributed to the photo-oxidation of Ag nanoparticles.

References and links

1. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science 291, 103–106 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Alqudami and S. Annapoorni, “Fluorescence from metallic silver and iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique,” Plasmonics 2, 5–13 (2007). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150–154 (1964). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. K. Naoi, Y. Ohko, and T. Tatsuma, “TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles: control of multicolor photochromic behavior,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 3664–3668 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005). [CrossRef]  

11. T. Andrew Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science 289, 1757–1760 (2000). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. F. Gonella and P. MazzoldiHandbook of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology, (Academic, CA2000).

14. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997). [CrossRef]  

16. Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable durface enhanced raman dcattering dubstrate,” Nano Lett. 5, 5–9 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002). [CrossRef]  

19. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817–1819 (1998). [CrossRef]  

20. P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003). [CrossRef]  

21. J. H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1557–1561 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002). [CrossRef]  

23. J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006). [CrossRef]  

24. O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006). [CrossRef]  

25. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. J. Y. Chen, B. Wiley, J. McLellan, Y. J. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, and Y. N. Xia, “Optical properties of Pd-Ag and Pt-Ag nanoboxes synthesized via galvanic replacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 5, 2058–2062 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. C. A. Rohde, K. Hasegawa, and M. Deutsch, “Coherent light scattering from semicontinuous silver nanoshells near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045503 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006). [CrossRef]  

29. V. Bastys, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodríguez-González, R. Vaisnoras, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Formation of silver nanoprisms with surface plasmons at communication wavelengths,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 766–773 (2006). [CrossRef]  

30. J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006). [CrossRef]  

31. H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211107–211110 (2006). [CrossRef]  

32. L. A. Peyser, T.-H. Lee, and R. M. Dickson, “Mechanism of Agn nanocluster photoproduction from silver oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7725–7728 (2002). [CrossRef]  

33. T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004). [CrossRef]  

34. H. R. Ma, R. F. Xiao, and P. Sheng, “Third-order optical nonlinearity enhancement through composite microstructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1022–1029 (1998). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science 291, 103–106 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Alqudami and S. Annapoorni, “Fluorescence from metallic silver and iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique,” Plasmonics 2, 5–13 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150–154 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Naoi, Y. Ohko, and T. Tatsuma, “TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles: control of multicolor photochromic behavior,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 3664–3668 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Andrew Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science 289, 1757–1760 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Gonella and P. MazzoldiHandbook of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology, (Academic, CA2000).
  14. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable durface enhanced raman dcattering dubstrate,” Nano Lett. 5, 5–9 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817–1819 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1557–1561 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Y. Chen, B. Wiley, J. McLellan, Y. J. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, and Y. N. Xia, “Optical properties of Pd-Ag and Pt-Ag nanoboxes synthesized via galvanic replacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 5, 2058–2062 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. A. Rohde, K. Hasegawa, and M. Deutsch, “Coherent light scattering from semicontinuous silver nanoshells near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045503 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Bastys, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodríguez-González, R. Vaisnoras, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Formation of silver nanoprisms with surface plasmons at communication wavelengths,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 766–773 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211107–211110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. A. Peyser, T.-H. Lee, and R. M. Dickson, “Mechanism of Agn nanocluster photoproduction from silver oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7725–7728 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. R. Ma, R. F. Xiao, and P. Sheng, “Third-order optical nonlinearity enhancement through composite microstructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1022–1029 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Alqudami and S. Annapoorni, “Fluorescence from metallic silver and iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique,” Plasmonics 2, 5–13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Rohde, K. Hasegawa, and M. Deutsch, “Coherent light scattering from semicontinuous silver nanoshells near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bastys, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodríguez-González, R. Vaisnoras, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Formation of silver nanoprisms with surface plasmons at communication wavelengths,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 766–773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211107–211110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable durface enhanced raman dcattering dubstrate,” Nano Lett. 5, 5–9 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Chen, B. Wiley, J. McLellan, Y. J. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, and Y. N. Xia, “Optical properties of Pd-Ag and Pt-Ag nanoboxes synthesized via galvanic replacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 5, 2058–2062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Naoi, Y. Ohko, and T. Tatsuma, “TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles: control of multicolor photochromic behavior,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 3664–3668 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Peyser, T.-H. Lee, and R. M. Dickson, “Mechanism of Agn nanocluster photoproduction from silver oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7725–7728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science 291, 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Andrew Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science 289, 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Ma, R. F. Xiao, and P. Sheng, “Third-order optical nonlinearity enhancement through composite microstructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1022–1029 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150–154 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alqudami, A.

A. Alqudami and S. Annapoorni, “Fluorescence from metallic silver and iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique,” Plasmonics 2, 5–13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrew Taton, T.

T. Andrew Taton, C. A. Mirkin, and R. L. Letsinger, “Scanometric DNA array detection with nanoparticle probes,” Science 289, 1757–1760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annapoorni, S.

A. Alqudami and S. Annapoorni, “Fluorescence from metallic silver and iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique,” Plasmonics 2, 5–13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Armistead, W. H.

W. H. Armistead and S. D. Stookey, “Photochromic silicate glasses sensitized by silver halides,” Science 144, 150–154 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atay, T.

J. H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bader, M. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartko, A. P.

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science 291, 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastys, V.

V. Bastys, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodríguez-González, R. Vaisnoras, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Formation of silver nanoprisms with surface plasmons at communication wavelengths,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 766–773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bera, S.

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, T. M.

T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. B.

X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. J.

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

J. Y. Chen, B. Wiley, J. McLellan, Y. J. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, and Y. N. Xia, “Optical properties of Pd-Ag and Pt-Ag nanoboxes synthesized via galvanic replacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 5, 2058–2062 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Y.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dahmen, C.

J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

C. A. Rohde, K. Hasegawa, and M. Deutsch, “Coherent light scattering from semicontinuous silver nanoshells near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, R. M.

L. A. Peyser, T.-H. Lee, and R. M. Dickson, “Mechanism of Agn nanocluster photoproduction from silver oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7725–7728 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science 291, 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, S.

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elovikov, S. S.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrer, R. A.

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujishima, A.

Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gangopadhyay, P.

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W. J.

X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, H. C.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, H.

J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giersig, M.

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gleitsmann, T.

T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

F. Gonella and P. MazzoldiHandbook of nanostructured materials and nanotechnology, (Academic, CA2000).

Gong, H. M.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, C.

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, Z.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, D. L.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, K.

C. A. Rohde, K. Hasegawa, and M. Deutsch, “Coherent light scattering from semicontinuous silver nanoshells near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, T.

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kesavamoorthy, R.

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Kesavamoorthy, S. Bera, P. Magudapathy, K. G. M. Nair, B. K. Panigrahi, and S. V. Narasimhan, “Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of the growth of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. M.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Full photonic band gap for surface modes in the visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, Y.

Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable durface enhanced raman dcattering dubstrate,” Nano Lett. 5, 5–9 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T.-H.

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J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005).
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G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
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G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
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P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
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G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
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X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X. W.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Func. Mater. (2)

X. B. Cao, L. Gu, L. J. Zhuge, W. J. Gao, W. C. Wang, and S. F. Wu, “Template-free preparation of hollow Sb2S3 microspheres as supports for Ag nanoparticles and photocatalytic properties of the constructed metal- semiconductor nanostructures,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 896–902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bastys, I. Pastoriza-Santos, B. Rodríguez-González, R. Vaisnoras, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Formation of silver nanoprisms with surface plasmons at communication wavelengths,” Adv. Func. Mater. 16, 766–773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

O. G. Tovmachenko, C. Graf, D. J. van den Heuvel, A. van Blaaderen, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Fluorescence enhancement by metal-core/Silica-shell nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 18, 91–95 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211107–211110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4050–4052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, W. T. Wang, Y. L. Zhou, H. B. Lu, G. Z. Yang, and Z. H. Chen, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanocluster/BaTiO3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969–3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, G. J. You, Y. G. Li, T. Han, J. Li, S. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, and S. X. Qian, “Linear and ultrafast nonlinear optical response of Ag:Bi2O3 composite films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3876–3878 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “DNA hybridization assays using metal-enhanced fluorescence,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 306, 213–218 (2003).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Naoi, Y. Ohko, and T. Tatsuma, “TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles: control of multicolor photochromic behavior,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 3664–3668 (2004).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Okumu, C. Dahmen, A. N. Sprafke, M. Luysberg, G. von Plessen, and M. Wutting, “Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094305 (2005).
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J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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L. A. Peyser, T.-H. Lee, and R. M. Dickson, “Mechanism of Agn nanocluster photoproduction from silver oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7725–7728 (2002).
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I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, Y. Shen, Z. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Multiphoton excitation of fluorescence near metallic particles: enhanced and localized excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 2191–2195 (2002).
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Nano Lett. (4)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable durface enhanced raman dcattering dubstrate,” Nano Lett. 5, 5–9 (2005).
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Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
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J. Y. Chen, B. Wiley, J. McLellan, Y. J. Xiong, Z. Y. Li, and Y. N. Xia, “Optical properties of Pd-Ag and Pt-Ag nanoboxes synthesized via galvanic replacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 5, 2058–2062 (2005).
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J. H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5, 1557–1561 (2005).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

Y. Ohko, T. Tatsuma, T. Fujii, K. Naoi, C. Niwa, Y. Kubota, and A. Fujishima, “Multicolour photochromism of TiO2 films loaded with silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 2, 29–31 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Kalkman, H. Gersen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, “Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 075317 (2006).
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Plasmonics (2)

T. Kempa, R. A. Farrer, M. Giersig, and J. T. Fourkas, “Photochemical synthesis and multiphoton luminescence of monodisperse silver nanocrystals,” Plasmonics 1, 45–51 (2006).
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Other (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nanostructure and optical absorption of Ag-TiO2 composite films. (a) TEM image of as-deposited Ag-TiO2 granular composite film with q Ag=034. The size of Ag nanoparticles is in the range of 20 ~ 50 nm. (b) TEM image of the same sample photoactivated by ps laser pulses at the wavelength of 800 nm for 2300 s with intensity I irr=0.21 MW/cm2. The average size of the photoactivated Ag particles decreases by about 7%. (c) Optical absorbance spectra of the samples with q Ag=0.28, 0.48 and 0.64 with (dash lines) and without (solid lines) photoactivated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photochromism dynamics of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by ps laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) Dependence of transmittance and reflectivity at 800nm on photoactivating time t irr. (b) Dependence of pure absorbance at 800nm on t irr.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photoactivation and two-photo luminescence (TPL) of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) Illumination of the setup for the TPL recording. (b) The TPL peak intensity of the film with q Ag=0.48 as a function of photoactivating time t irr. The photoactivating intensity I irr equal to 10.4 MW/cm2, 14.4 MW/cm2 and 17.3 MW/cm2, respectively. (c) The saturable increasing constant t s of the TPL as a function of I irr, t s is inverse proportional to I irr.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two-photo luminescence (TPL) of Ag-TiO2 films photoactivated by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (a) TPL spectra of the film with q Ag=0.48 recorded after the photoactivating time t irr= 450 s. The photoactivating intensity I irr is equal to 17.3 MW/cm2. (b) The dependence of the TPL intensity I TPL on the excitation power I irr.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

TPL of Ag-TiO2 samples. (a) Normalized TPL spectra of the samples with q Ag=0.28, 0.34, 0.42 and 0.48, which is excited by fs laser at the wavelength of 800 nm. (b) Normalized I TPF as a function of q Ag with excitation intensity I irr=16.5 MW/cm2.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = a 0 + a 1 e t irr t 1 + a 2 e t irr t 2
I TPL ( t irr ) = I s ( 1 e t irr t s )
I TPL ω emi ω irr q Ag = A q Ag f ω emi q Ag 2 f ω irr q Ag 4 I irr 2

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