Abstract

Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Functional brain imaging has become an important tool in exploring both the healthy and the dysfunctional brain in humans and animals. Intrinsic signal optical imaging allows visualization of the active brain at a relatively high spatial resolution (tens of micrometers). There are other methods for studying brain response during behavior, but either they have lower spatial resolution [e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)], near infrared, surface electroencephalogram (EEG), or are restricted to monitoring single or a small number of neurons (single and multiunit electrophysiology) without providing good spatial organizational information. Such methods can also be more invasive, whereas windows, once implanted, do not require introduction of external materials into the brain.

The intrinsic signal arises from various sources including changes in blood volume due to local capillary recruitment, activity-dependent changes in the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (increase or decrease in deoxyhemoglobin), and light-scattering changes that accompany cortical activation.[1] As these components vary in time course, they can be differentially monitored with different illumination wavelengths. Although functional maps can be obtained at a number of illumination wavelengths, in monkey visual cortex, the most commonly used is in the range of 600–630 nm wavelengths at which the oxymetry component is relatively large. The intrinsic signal has been associated with so-called “initial dip” in blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI studies,[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and its correlation with neural response, both spiking and subthreshhold neural response, is becoming more firmly established. For a recent review see Ref. [8].

The amplitude and time course of the intrinsic signal in macaque visual cortex has been previously described.[1] In the anesthetized animal, the basis of the optical imaging maps is a reflectance signal change of 0.1%–1% peaking at approximately 2–3 s after stimulus onset. Although many orientation maps in visual cortex have been published, there is not much information available regarding the variability of the intrinsic optical signal over groups of functional domains, across multiple experimental sessions, between anesthetized and awake states, and between individual animals.

Why is spatial resolution important? The main computational power in the brain resides in the cerebral cortex, the size and complexity of which serves to differentiate humans from other animals. As each behavior is complex and requires a number of processing stages, the workload of generating sensorimotor behavior is divided among many different areas; some handle vision, others touch, and yet others handle higher cognitive functions such as working memory. Within each cortical area, function is parcellated into fundamental compartments or modules (e.g., Ref. [9]). The organization and function of these modules has been an area of active investigation.

One of the challenges of optical imaging is to understand the modular basis of cognition. How do networks of modules within and across cortical areas achieve vision or memory or emotion? Visualization of such modular activations during behavior is tantamount to watching the brain at work. Over the past decade, researchers have developed methods to visualize activations through implanted “windows on the brain.” By applying these methods to the awake, behaving animal, it is hoped that this method can open new vistas in our understanding of the neural basis of cognitive function. Furthermore, the ability of these studies to forge a critical link between a large body of work on animal models and functional imaging in humans will be invaluable.

Is optical imaging in awake animals feasible? In 1991, Grinvald and colleagues imaged ocular dominance maps in the awake, untrained monkey.[10] This pioneering study demonstrated that optical imaging could be performed in the awake animal. Ocular dominance, orientation, and color maps were obtained in the awake, fixating monkey by Vnek et al.[11] Optical imaging has also been used to demonstrate novel organization in the parietal and prefrontal cortex (Seidemann et al.[12] and Roe et al.[13]). Siegel et al.[14] demonstrated an organization for eye gaze position in Area 7 in macaque monkeys. Preliminary studies from Roe et al. indicate that there may be a spatial topographic map for working memory in monkeys performing delay-match-to-sample tasks (Roe et al.[13]). These and other studies described in this section indicate that optical imaging is emerging as a useful tool for examining cortical function in behaving animals.

2. Challenge

To maintain a clear, unobstructed view of the cortex, the skull and dura mater must be prevented from regrowing over the exposed cortex. Often, as part of a “healing response,” cortex that is exposed for extended periods of time exhibits a growth of “neomembrane,” a new membrane on the surface of the cortex, which can seriously degrade the quality of the optical signal. Exposed cortex is also subject to added risk for infection and mechanical injury. Optimally, one needs to develop an implant method that permits routine, repeated imaging sessions in the anesthetized animal or in the awake, behaving animal. Although in smaller animals (e.g., rats, tree shrews, cats) with thin dura, intrinsic optical signals can be imaged through the intact dura or even through the thinned bone,[15, 16, 17] the thickness of the bone and native dura in old world primates makes this option impractical (Ref. [10], personal observations). Different methods using fiber optics inserted into the brain have also been explored for recording deep structures in the brain.[18]

To achieve the ability to image the brain long term, both issues of biology and instrumentation must be dealt with. Several goals need to be achieved:

  1. a method of implanting an optically clear artificial dura such that a cortical area may be imaged over a long (months, years) period of time without infection or regrowth;
  2. development of hardware and software necessary to interface image acquisition, behavioral training, and stimulus presentation systems;
  3. minimization of motion: ways to ensure high mechanical rigidity of camera relative to the brain, minimization of brain pulsations;
  4. training animal to sit still during image acquisition (for both mechanical and physiological stability) and perform relevant visuomotor tasks;
  5. image alignment and deformation algorithms, which allow the summing of images acquired in separate imaging sessions (for improvement of signal to noise);
  6. signal enhancing data analysis algorithms and statistical evaluations of signal significance;
  7. large volume data management routines (5–15 Gbits collected daily).

Some of the methods currently used to address these issues are summarized here.

3. Chamber and Artificial Dura Design

Two models of chamber and artificial dura have been developed to date. Both have successfully enabled long-term imaging of the cortex. The model developed by Grinvald and colleagues and also used by Siegel and colleagues is derived from the traditional stainless-steel chamber design. In this method, an X cut is made in the dura and the four leaves pulled up and glued to the inner wall of the steel chamber. An artificial silicone-based premolded hat-shaped dura is then implanted and secured with a rubber silicone ring.[19]

The second model is a nylon prototype designed for electrophysiological and MRI recordings[20] (Fig. 1). The top of the chamber is threaded on the inside so that a cap, made of the same material, screws into the chamber securely and provides a good seal (Fig. 1E). The bottom of the chamber consists of a number of flexible flanges (Fig. 1B) that snap snugly into the craniotomy and, once in, are secure and immovable. This chamber has a low profile on the head, is lightweight and therefore suitable for smaller animals, MRI compatible, and requires little dental cement and no or few screws. The artificial dura used in conjunction with this design is a transparent, soft thermoplastic polyurethane (Tecoflex).[21] This material is completely inert and can be implanted for months to years without reactive growth.[13, 22, 23] In this case, the dura is resected and the base of the dura hat is inserted between the native dura edge and the cortex (Fig. 1A). The wall of the hat prevents ingrowth of any native dura into the chamber.

4. Long-Term Maintainance of Healthy Cortex in a Chronic Chamber

Prior to chamber implantation, for purposes of interpreting subsequent optical images, determining the topographic representation of the exposed cortex with a brief electrophysiological mapping procedure is extremely useful (Fig. 2A). Following implantation of chamber and artificial dura, cortex is maintained in a clear and healthy state and vascular patterns remain stable for years (Fig. 2B). Repeated imaging experiments can be conducted on the same cortex in the same animal. For subsequent electrophysiological recordings, the artificial dura is removed, recordings conducted, and dura hat easily replaced.

Chamber maintenance is essential for long-term recording without infection or excessive dural growth. Aseptic procedures are used at all times. Before opening the chamber, the outside of the chamber is first cleaned with an antiseptic solution. The chamber cap is then removed and the inside rinsed with sterile saline. Even though in most instances no removal of dural growth is necessary, at times a small amount of new dural growth will emerge from between the artificial dural wall and the chamber wall. This growth has a gelatinous consistency and is easily removed with either forceps or cotton swabs. To help prevent infection, a sterile piece of gauze soaked in an antibiotic is then placed in the chamber before closing the cap. If these procedures are conducted consistently, problems with dural growth and infection are prevented. In addition, the fluid contents of the chamber should be tested intermittently for bacterial sensitivity and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of this test. These procedures permit long-term maintenance (years) of healthy imageable cortex.[13, 20, 22, 23]

If cortex is carefully maintained, neomembrane growth can be prevented. Neomembrane growth is activated by an insult to the cortex (e.g., mechanical or vascular insult). If significant growth occurs, the new membrane can be surgically removed (durotomy) and the cortical surface reexposed. This procedure, if carefully conducted, reveals a pristine cortex with no apparent change in surface vasculature or degradation of function (as assessed with optical imaging and single unit electrophysiology and animal behavior).

5. Repeated Imaging in Anesthetized Monkeys

Anesthetic choice. Intrinsic signal optical imaging is compatible with a wide range of anesthetics and the anesthetic choice may vary with species, individual, cortical area, and stimulus paradigm. The key to successful optical imaging is maintenance of a stable plane of anesthesia (as measured by heart rate, expired CO2, EEG, blood oxygenation, and blood pressure). This provides conditions optimal for maximizing signal-to-noise ratio. The ideal depth of anesthesia is a light to moderate anesthesia characteristic of sleep. This level is characterized by low-frequency, high-amplitude (up to 150μV) bursts with periods of suppression less than 1  s in the EEG. In humans in this state, the patient has lost consciousness, has reduced reflex activity, no reaction to painful stimuli, and can undergo surgical procedures. If the subject is too light, the anesthetic plane fluctuates, leading to increased baseline noise; if the subject is too deep, cortical activity is compromised. In our experience, slightly deeper anesthesic planes are preferable over fluctuating anesthetic planes. Imaging in anesthetized monkeys has been successfully conducted with a variety of anesthetics. For example, sodium pentothal provides a stable baseline to which small, rapid adjustments of anesthesia can be made when lightly supplemented with a gas anesthetic (e.g., 0.1%1.0% isoflurane). Imaging can also be conducted solely on gas anesthetics, which offer rapid reversibility and fast recovery times for the animal, however, in our experience, this is accompanied by greater baseline fluctuation than with sodium pentothal. Sufentanil has also been used reversibly for studying higher cortical areas (such as V4) that are typically suppressed under anesthesia.[24] Other anesthetics such as propofol,[25] halothane,[26] urethane[16] have also been used successfully in intrinsic signal optical imaging experiments.

Stability of maps. As a measure of the health of the cortex, it is important to establish the stability of the cortical responses to the same stimuli over time (Fig. 3). Stable maps have been reported in both visual and somatosensory cortices.[11, 19, 20, 22] The amplitudes (0.1%1.0%) and time courses of optical signal over time remains stable. No significant decline in signal amplitude occurs over a 2 year imaging period.

6. Imaging in Awake Monkeys

General strategy. Adult macaque (Macaca fascicularis, Rhesus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) have been used for awake optical imaging experiments. Monkeys are chronically implanted with optical chambers and head post and trained to sit calmly in a chair. Visual tasks include visual fixation and tasks requiring eye or hand movement responses such as orientation discrimination and delayed match to sample tasks. Eye movement responses are preferred, since manual responses introduce additional movement artifact during imaging. Tactile tasks in squirrel monkeys have required the monkey to hold the hand still. To permit comparison of anesthetized and awake signals, the same monkeys were imaged in both states. Detailed surgical and optical imaging procedures can be found in Refs. [27] and [28].

Monkey selection. In our experience, not all monkeys image equally well. It is widely believed that younger animals have stronger blood-flow related signals, however, there are no systematic studies to test this hypothesis. We thus screen each monkey for imageability before embarking on any training and chamber implantation procedures. We also screen for availability of area of interest. For example, in macaque monkeys, we screen for the availability of V2 exposure (much of V2 is buried in the lunate sulcus and the amount of V2 on the surface of the operculum varies across individuals). In macaque monkeys, we examine the number of trials with which ocular dominance, orientation, and color maps are obtained in V1 and V2. In squirrel monkeys, digit tip activation is a reliable marker for imageability. Typically, most monkeys will produce good maps within 10–20 trials. In stable preparations, it is not uncommon to see ocular dominance in a single trial. Thus, for each monkey, depending on the area of interest, it may be helpful to perform an initial optical imaging procedure conducted under anesthesia. However, if the area of interest is a higher cortical area (such as prefrontal cortex), imaging under anesthesia may not be helpful, since signals in these areas are typically depressed under anesthesia.

Monkey training. Monkeys are implanted with a head post, and then trained to sit calmly in the chair (Fig. 4). The animal is rewarded with a drop of juice to reinforce sitting still in the primate chair during training and recording. After training, monkeys are implanted with a chamber and native dura replaced with transparent artificial dura.

Brain stabilization during imaging. To minimize pulsations during imaging, we typically use either agar (4%) or agar with a transparent silicone wafer. The total time required for chamber preparation can be kept reasonably short (i.e., 1015  min). Following imaging, the agar is removed, the chamber rinsed with sterile saline, antibiotic applied, and the cap replaced.

Stimulus presentation. Visual stimuli include visual gratings of various orientations and spots at different locations in space. Ocular dominance maps are collected using an electromechanical shutter placed in front of the eye. Tactile stimuli are either cutaneous electrical or vibrotactile stimulation on the fingertips. Stimuli within each set [including blank (no stim) conditions] are randomly interleaved during image acquisition.

Synchronization with heartbeat and respiration. Synchronization with heartbeat and respiration is not necessary; these signal artifacts can be minimized by subtraction of prestim or blank conditions.[11, 19, 22, 29]

Image acquisition. In our experiments, images were collected using the Imager 2001 and 3001 systems (Optical Imaging, Germantown, New York) and a 630  nm illumination. We are currently developing the NeuroCCD-SM256 system (RedShirtImaging, LLC) for use in the awake, behaving monkey; the camera has an extremely low read noise, high quantum efficiency, a large well depth of 106, a large spatial 256×256 array charge-coupled device, and fast readout. In a typical session, depending on the monkey, 50500 trials are collected per stimulus condition. Intrinsic signal maps were collected at 5–15 image frames∕s and for 3–5 s starting 200  ms prior to stimulus onset. Interstimulus intervals were 6–12 s.

Comparison of the anesthetized and awake imaging conditions. Identical stimuli are presented in the anesthetized and awake states. However, significant differences remain. In the anesthetized animal, conditions are optimized such that physiological variability is minimized by careful regulation of anesthesia, cortical pulsations are minimized with agar or silicone oil in an optical chamber, and stimuli are presented in a well-controlled, repeatable fashion. In the awake animal, there is much greater variability of the animal's respiration and heart rate, much greater motion artifact due to both body movements and to greater cortical pulsations, resulting in significant trial-to-trial variability of the optical signal. Thus, depending on the behavior of the individual monkey, some portion of the trials are discarded due to excessive movement artifact. Response to repeated presentation of stimuli should, with averaging, produce a consistent signal more reliably than occasional and erratic signals due to movement or changes in the animal's physiology. Appropriate analyses are conducted to ensure that the signal is not due to systematic contribution by sources not related to the stimuli presented (e.g., motion artifact due to licking).

7. Image Analysis

Typically, for each stimulus condition, image frames are summed to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Before summation, images are examined either manually[10, 11] or in an automated fashion[14] to remove trials that contain excessive noise. Since noise levels (due to mechanical motion or physiologically related large changes in baseline reflectance) are much larger in the awake animal, elimination of noisy trials is essential. For this reason, individual trials are saved as separate files, rather than saving averaged responses. Blank condition trials are examined for possible nonstimulus related changes in reflectance. In addition, poor behavioral performance (e.g., excessive body movement, sleeping) also leads to trial exclusion. Control analyses include comparison of sums of different blocks of trials; presence of sporadic high-amplitude noise would produce different half-trial maps, whereas consistent nonartifactual signal would produce similar maps. Consistency of single condition (either blank subtracted or first frame subtracted) analyses and two condition subtraction analyses further establish believability of the signal. Blank subtractions not only measure change from baseline, but also reduce blood vessel artifact and minimizes effects of uneven illumination. In addition, comparison of images obtained by summing different subsets of imaged trials can further confirm the validity of results. When used together, we are able to confirm that the imaged signals are consistent and repeatable and not due to noise signals occurring in one or a few of the trials.

Determining signal significance. Methods for determining signal significance include thresholding,[27, 28] t maps,[30] response correlation,[31] bootstrapping,[14] and principal components analysis[32] methods. In threshholding procedures, images are typically low-pass filtered, pixel distributions established, and the pixels with strongest activations above a certain value (e.g., 15%) identified. This method is appropriate for clear, focal activations where different threshold levels produce a similar region of activation (e.g., Ref. [33]). High-pass filtering is typically used in cases where gradual gradation of pixel values is observed over the image (e.g., due to illuminant unevenness or to cortical curvature). Masks are commonly used to exclude pixels that have aberrantly large reflectance change (e.g., excluding pixels >0.5  SD from mean of distribution); this is useful for removing the most offensive large blood vessel noise. It is not acceptable to interpolate pixel values across regions of excluded vasculature (see Refs. [17] and [34]). Correlation of pixel time courses have also been used to determine significance in response.[31] In a study on the mapping of gaze direction in the parietal lobe, Siegel et al.[14] devised a method of normalizing every pixel to an initial prestimulus baseline and, following outlier rejection, calculating significance from the mean by Monte Carlo analysis. A useful method developed by Wang et al.[30] generates t maps, which evaluates, pixel by pixel, similarity between trials of prestimulus and poststimulus response using the standard t test.

8. Motion Correction

Linear. At times, monkey's movements may introduce translational noise to the images. It is therefore useful to have a motion correction algorithm to shift back the frames to the original location and thus permit correct frame alignment before image summation (Figs. 5A–5C). This can be done only with original DC frames (not with difference signals typically collected by an 8 bit camera, Imager 2001). As can been seen in Fig. 5D, frame-to-frame shifts in the anesthetized animal (black line) are small and periodic, while those in the awake animal (red line) are larger and more erratic. These procedures improve image alignment, appropriate summing of corresponding pixels, and therefore increase signal to noise in images.

Nonlinear. From day to day and over long periods, the position and curvature of the cortex may change. Deformation algorithms may also be used for nonlinear changes in the cortical map (Fig. 6). These procedures increase the number of trials that can be summed beyond those collected within a single session and therefore help to increase signal to noise.

9. How Similar Are Activation Patterns?

In visual cortex, repeated imaging of ocular dominance and orientation in awake monkeys produce fairly stable maps similar to those obtained in the anesthetized state.[11, 19, 29] In somatosensory cortex, there is significant variability in receptive field size and topography depending on level of alertness and anesthesia, on attentional state, and on activation of local neurotransmitters (especially GABAergic) systems.[35, 36, 37] Indeed, rapid shifts in receptive field organization have been observed (e.g., Ref. [38]) and further suggest the dynamic nature of somatosensory cortex. Given these differences, we asked how similar topographic and areal activation patterns would be in awake and anesthetized squirrel monkeys.

We find evidence that in somatosensory cortex, activation patterns can differ significantly between anesthetized and awake preparations. In the anesthetized state, we generally observe stronger activations in Area 3b than in Area 1 (Fig. 7A). The opposite is observed in the awake state, where Area 1 activations are more prominent (Fig. 7B). In fact, in some cases, only Area 1 activation is observed and no apparent Area 3b activation is seen at all. Topographically, the map in the awake state appears less precise and also different from that in the anesthetized state. The activations to D3 and D4 stimulation are highly overlapped (Fig. 7C). Finally, we observe, within Area 1, a lateral displacement of activation in the awake state from that in the anesthetized state (compare A and B). This result is obtained with both electrical and vibrotactile stimulation.[22] These results suggest significant awake versus anesthetized differences in somatosensory activations, perhaps due to differences in neural response or vacular response.

10. How Big Is the Signal?

Magnitude, time course, and signal to noise in anesthetized versus awake monkeys. As shown in Fig. 8, the time course of optical signal in both anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey SI cortex peaks at approximately 2.0–2.2 s poststimulus onset and is sustained longer than in the anesthetized animal. Consistent with signals obtained in awake visual cortex,[19] the peak reflectance change in the awake animal is several times larger in the awake than in the anesthetized animal. In an average of 12 awake monkey experiments, signal amplitude was 0.92%+0.38% at the digit center, and 0.38%+0.22% on a control location away from activation center. In an average of 13 anesthetized monkey experiments, the corresponding numbers are 0.32%+0.068% on digit center, and 0.014%+0.017% on control location. If one takes the ratio of signal size to error size, this factor is 2.4(=0.92/0.38) in the awake state and 4.7(=0.32/0.068) in the anesthetized state. As a measure of discriminability from unstimulated cortex (center∕control), the factor is 2.4(=0.92/0.38) in the awake state and 22.8(=0.32/0.014) in the anesthetized state. Thus, while signal size is larger in awake animals, noise is also larger by at least a factor of 2 and discriminability decreases by an order of magnitude. The basis of these differences remains to be investigated.

11. Future Directions

Optical imaging has been used to elucidate the functional organization of sensory cortical areas in primates. A future goal is to use this methodology to explore functional organization of cognitive functions. For example, optical imaging methodology has been used to study the organization for spatial working memory in monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed response task.[13] The results suggest possible spatial organization for memory related signals in prefrontal cortex (see also Refs. [12] and [39]). Other studies using intrinsic signal imaging in awake, behaving monkeys have examined the organization of gaze direction[40] and spatial attention[41] in parietal cortex. In addition, the development of exciting new voltage sensitive dyes, which increase the temporal resolution of optical imaging to the millisecond time scale, increases even further the power and possibility of studying brain function in behaving animals.[29]

Many thanks to Haidong Lu and Limin Chen for assistance with this document and to Haidong Lu for generating the motion correction algorithm. This research was supported by the National Eye Institute, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Packard Foundation.

 

Fig. 1 A, Profile of chamber and artificial dura over the brain; B, chamber; C, artificial dura; D, chamber open; E, chamber closed. (From Chen et al.[20])

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Fig. 2 A, Dura over SI somatosensory cortex (Areas 1, 3b, and 3a) in the squirrel monkey has been resected and a detailed electrophysiological map recorded. B. Appearance of cortex remains healthy and vascular pattern remains stable for over a 2 year period.

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Fig. 3 Cortical responses to tactile indentation on Digit 3 (D3) is imaged repeatedly on three different days. Response region overlain on blood vessel map (indicated by outlines in overlay) reveals stable topography over time. Signal amplitudes were stable over time (0.77%+0.1%, 0.83%+0.07%, and 0.59% + 0.14%).

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Fig. 4 Optical imaging setup of squirrel monkey with implanted chamber.

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Fig. 5 Motion correction algorithm. A. Time sequence of image frames. B. Select one frame as base frame (usually the very first frame of the run). Shift each frame in x and y coordinates in 0.2–0.5 pixel steps. For each shift, calculate the correlation coefficient between the base frame and the current frame. C. Repeat for every pixel in a small area (e.g., 10×10 comparison will give 100 correlation coefficients). Find the best coefficient and use corresponding shift offset (dx,dy). D. Magnitude of correction in an anesthetized monkey (black) and an awake, fixating monkey (gray) (140 frames over 28  s).

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Fig. 6 Ocular dominance (B, E) and orientation (C, F) maps from V1 and V2 in macaque monkey on two different days (A–C versus D–F). Black crosses in A and D indicate the alignment points used to generate transformation function between images. F–I Application of transformation to images in A–C produce images similar to D–F. (From Chen et al.[20])

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Fig. 7 Cortical response to vibrotactile stimulation of D3 and D4 in the squirrel monkey. A. Anesthetized activation prominent in Area 3b (see time course in Fig. 8). B. Awake activation prominent in Area 1 (see time courses in graphs below). C. Electrophysiologyical mapping of Areas 3a, 3b, and 1.

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Fig. 8 Time course of optical signal in Area 3b of the squirrel monkey in response to vibrotactile stimulation of digits D2 (circle) and D4 (triangle). Awake (A) and anesthetized (B) signals were obtained from identical location in same monkey to identical stimulus. All signals measured at the D4 location.

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23. B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, “Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

24. G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, “Formprocessing modules in primate area V4,” J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191–2196 (1997). [PubMed]  

25. X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, “Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey,” J. Neurosci. 24, 6237–6247 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, “Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex,” Neuron 32, 325–337 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, “Real and illusory contourprocessing in Area V1 of the primate—a cortical balancing act,” Cerebral Cortex 11, 648–665 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, “Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging,” J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011–3029 (2001). [PubMed]  

29. H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, “Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421–3438 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, “Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging,” Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33–46 (1998). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, “Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation,” J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272–3283 (1998). [PubMed]  

32. L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, “Analysis methods for optical imaging,” in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R. Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

33. T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, “Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex,” NeuroReport 15, 1527–1532 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, “Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735–15742 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, “Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus),” Neurosci. 6, 1687–1692 (1981). [CrossRef]  

36. Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, “Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey,” Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327–337 (1983). [CrossRef]  

37. K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, “Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates,” Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98–610 (1991). [CrossRef]  

38. C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, “Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys,” J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722–732 (1995). [PubMed]  

39. S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, “Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331–349 (1989). [PubMed]  

40. R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, “Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a,” Cereb. Cortex 7, 327–346 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, “Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey,” J. Neurosci. 25, 5171–586 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.
  2. I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. W. Roe, "Modular complexity of Area V2 in the Macaque monkey," in The Primate Visual System, C. Collins and J. H. Kaas, eds. (CRC, 2003), pp. 109-138.
  10. A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).
  14. R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  17. W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  18. D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  20. L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).
  23. B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).
  24. G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  25. X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  29. H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  32. L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).
  33. T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  39. S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  40. R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (3)

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

1991 (2)

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alloway, K. D.

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andermann, M. L.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arezzo, J. C.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ariasa, C.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arieli, A.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bartfeld, E.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckerand, D. P.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonhoeffer, T.

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

Bookheimer, S. Y.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
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Borges, L. F.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
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X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
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W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
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S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
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K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
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A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
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A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
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Casagrande, V.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casagrande, V. A.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
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Chamvises, K.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
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Chen, L. M.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
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L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Dale, A. M.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
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M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
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A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
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A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
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D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykes, R. W.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
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Favorov, O. V.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Fitzpatrick, D.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

Freeman, R. D.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, R. M.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
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R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
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S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
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C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
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G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
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Goldman-Rakic, P. S.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
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E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
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E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

Guiou, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, F. L.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Heider, B.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

Hikosaka, O.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hildesheim, R.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, C. P.

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwamura, Y.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jando, G.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaas, J. H.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, E.

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. G.

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretz, R.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

LaMotte, R. H.

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lieke, E. E.

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, D. C.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, N. A.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merzenich, M. M.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Metz, C. B.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Nelson, R. J.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, M. R.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phinney, R. E.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouratian, N.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Pucak, M. L.

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

Raffi, M.

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, B. M.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Ramsden, R. M.

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, H. L.

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rector, D. M.

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roe, A. W.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

A. W. Roe, "Modular complexity of Area V2 in the Macaque monkey," in The Primate Visual System, C. Collins and J. H. Kaas, eds. (CRC, 2003), pp. 109-138.

Rogers, R. F.

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, M.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sakas, D. E.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sary, G.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, C. E.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Schuett, S. T.

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, T. H.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidemann, E.

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengpiel, F.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seto, S.

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

Sheth, S.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shima, D.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shomer, M. H.

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Shtoyerman, E.

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Siegel, R. M.

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirovich, L.

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

Slovin, H.

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

Spencer, D. D.

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansic, J.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansic, J. D.

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sur, M.

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sybirska, E.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

Tanaka, K.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanifuji, M.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, J. K.

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toga, A. W.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

Tommerdahl, M.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ts'o, D. Y.

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J. A.

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulbert, I.

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanzetta, I.

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vierck, C. J.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Vnek, N.

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, M.

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walled, D.

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

Wang, G.

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitsel, B. L.

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

Williams, G. V.

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Xu, X.

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zepeda, A.

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zervas, N. T.

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cereb. Cortex (2)

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, S. Y. Bookheimer, N. A. Martin, D. P. Beckerand, and A. W. Toga, "Temporal spatial differences observed by functional MRI and human intraoperative optical imaging," Cereb. Cortex 11, 773-782 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Siegel and H. L. Read, "Analysis of optic flow in the monkey parietal area 7a," Cereb. Cortex 7, 327-346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerebral Cortex (1)

B. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, and A. W. Roe, "Real and illusory contour processing in Area V1 of the primate--a cortical balancing act," Cerebral Cortex 11, 648-665 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain Res. (2)

Y. Iwamura, M. Tanaka, M. Sakamoto, and O. Hikosaka, "Converging patterns of finger representation and complex response properties of neurons in Area 1 of the first somatoensory cortex of the conscious monkey," Exp. Brain Res. 51, 327-337 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Alloway and H. Burton, "Differential effects of GABA and bicuculline on rapidly- and slowly-adapting neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of primates," Exp. Brain Res. 85, 98-610 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (8)

C. E. Schroeder, S. Seto, J. C. Arezzo, and P. E. Garraghty, "Electrophysiological evidence for overlapping dominant and latent inputs to somatosensory cortex in squirrel monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 74, 722-732 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 61, 331-349 (1989).
[PubMed]

L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, B. M. Ramsden, R. H. LaMotte, and A. W. Roe, "Fine-scale organization of primary somatosensory cortex (Area 3b) in the squirrel monkey revealed with intrinsic optical imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 3011-3029 (2001).
[PubMed]

H. Slovin, A. Arieli, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term voltage-sensitive dye imaging reveals cortical dynamics in behaving monkeys," J. Neurophysiol. 88, 3421-3438 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ghose and D. Y. Ts'o, "Form processing modules in primate area V4," J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2191-2196 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. Tommerdahl, K. A. Delemos, O. V. Favorov, C. B. Metz, C. J. Vierck, and B. L. Whitsel, "Response of anterior parietal cortex to different modes of same-site skin stimulation," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 3272-3283 (1998).
[PubMed]

R. M. Siegel, M. Raffi, R. E. Phinney, J. A. Turner, and G. Jando, "Functional architecture of eye position gain fields in visual association cortex of behaving monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 90, 1279-1294 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Cannestra, N. Pouratian, M. H. Shomer, and A. W. Toga, "Refractory periods observed by intrinsic signal and fluorescent dye imaging," J. Neurophysiol. 80, 1522-1532 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (4)

W. H. Bosking, R. Kretz, M. L. Pucak, and D. Fitzpatrick, "Functional specificity of callosal connections in tree shrew striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 20, 2346-2359 (2000).
[PubMed]

X. Xu, W. Bosking, G. Sary, J. Stefansic, D. Shima, and V. Casagrande, "Functional organization of visual cortex in the owl monkey," J. Neurosci. 24, 6237-6247 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shtoyerman, A. Arieli, H. Slovin, I. Vanzetta, and A. Grinvald, "Long-term optical imaging and spectroscopy reveal mechanisms underlying the intrinsic signal and stability of cortical maps in VI of behaving monkeys," J. Neurosci. 20, 8111-8121 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. Raffi and R. M. Siegel, "Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of the behaving monkey," J. Neurosci. 25, 5171-586 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (3)

L. M. Chen, B. Heider, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, G. V. Williams, and A. W. Roe, "A chamber and artificial dura method for long-term optical imaging in primates," J. Neurosci. Methods 113, 41-49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rector, R. F. Rogers, and J. S. George, "A focusing image probe for assessing neural activity in vivo," J. Neurosci. Methods 91, 135-145 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zepeda, C. Ariasa, and F. Sengpiel, "Optical imaging of intrinsic signals: recent developments in the methodology and its applications," J. Neurosci. Methods 136, 1-21 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

D. E. Sakas, K. Chamvises, L. F. Borges, and N. T. Zervas, "Biologically inert synthetic dural substitutes. Appraisal of a medical-grade aliphatic polyurethane and a polysiloxane-carbonate block copolymer," J. Neurosurg. 73, 936-941 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

D. S. Kim, T. Q. Duong, and S. G. Kim, "High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI," Nat. Neurosci. 3, 164-169 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

S. Sheth, M. Nemoto, M. Guiou, M. Walker, N. Pouratian, and A. W. Toga, "Evaluation of coupling between optical intrinsic signals and neuronal activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuroimage 19, 884-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (2)

A. Devor, A. K. Dunn, M. L. Andermann, I. Ulbert, D. A. Boas, and A. M. Dale, "Coupling of total hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and neural activity in rat somatosensory cortex," Neuron 39, 353-359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Schuett, T. Bonhoeffer, and M. Hubener, "Pairing-induced changes of orientation maps in cat visual cortex," Neuron 32, 325-337 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroReport (1)

T. H. Schwartz, L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, D. D. Spencer, and A. W. Roe, "Intraoperative optical imaging of face topography in human somatosensory cortex," NeuroReport 15, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. (1)

R. W. Dykes, M. Sur, M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, and R. J. Nelson, "Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)," Neurosci. 6, 1687-1692 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neurosci. Res. (1)

G. Wang, M. Tanifuji, and K. Tanaka, "Functional architecture in monkey inferotemporal cortex revealed by in vivo optical imaging," Neurosci. Res. (NY) 32, 33-46 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

D. C. Lyon, X. Xu, V. A. Casagrande, J. D. Stefansic, D. Shima, and J. H. Kaas, "Optical imaging reveals retinotopic organization of dorsal V3 in New World owl monkeys," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 15735-15742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts'o, and A. Grinvald, "Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6082-6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, R. M. Siegel, and E. Bartfeld, "High-resolution optical imaging of functional brain architecture in the awake monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11559-11563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vnek, R. M. Ramsden, C. P. Hung, P. S. Goldman-Rakic, and A. W. Roe, "Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 4057-4060 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

E. Seidemann, A. Arieli, A. Grinvald, and H. Slovin, "Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal," Science 295, 862-865 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Thompson, M. R. Peterson, and R. D. Freeman, "Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex," Science 299, 1070-1072 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vanzetta and A. Grinvald, "Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging," Science 286, 1555-1558 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soc. Neurosci. Abstract (2)

A. W. Roe, D. Walled, E. Sybirska, and P. S. Goldman-Rakic, "Optical imaging of prefrontal cortex during oculomotor delay response task in Macaque monkey," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , San Diego, Calif. (2004).

B. Heider, L. M. Chen, G. V. Williams, F. L. Healy, B. M. Ramsden, and A. W. Roe, "Chronic optical imaging in anesthetized and alert monkeys," Soc. Neurosci. Abstract , 619.33 (2001).

Other (4)

L. Sirovich and E. Kaplan, "Analysis methods for optical imaging," in Optical Imaging: CRC Reviews, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC, 2002).

A. W. Roe, F. L. Healy, R. M. Friedman, B. Heider, and L. M. Chen, "Differences in SI topography between anesthetized and awake squirrel monkey as revealed by optical imaging," Program No. 28:651.3. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Washington, D.C.: Society for Neuroscience, CD-ROM (2002).

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, "Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: the methodology," in Brain Mapping. The Methods, A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996), pp. 55-87.

A. W. Roe, "Modular complexity of Area V2 in the Macaque monkey," in The Primate Visual System, C. Collins and J. H. Kaas, eds. (CRC, 2003), pp. 109-138.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Profile of chamber and artificial dura over the brain; B, chamber; C, artificial dura; D, chamber open; E, chamber closed. (From Chen et al.[20])

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Dura over SI somatosensory cortex (Areas 1, 3b, and 3a) in the squirrel monkey has been resected and a detailed electrophysiological map recorded. B. Appearance of cortex remains healthy and vascular pattern remains stable for over a 2 year period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cortical responses to tactile indentation on Digit 3 (D3) is imaged repeatedly on three different days. Response region overlain on blood vessel map (indicated by outlines in overlay) reveals stable topography over time. Signal amplitudes were stable over time ( 0.77 % + 0.1 % , 0.83 % + 0.07 % , and 0.59% + 0.14%).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical imaging setup of squirrel monkey with implanted chamber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Motion correction algorithm. A. Time sequence of image frames. B. Select one frame as base frame (usually the very first frame of the run). Shift each frame in x and y coordinates in 0.2–0.5 pixel steps. For each shift, calculate the correlation coefficient between the base frame and the current frame. C. Repeat for every pixel in a small area (e.g., 10 × 10 comparison will give 100 correlation coefficients). Find the best coefficient and use corresponding shift offset ( d x , d y ) . D. Magnitude of correction in an anesthetized monkey (black) and an awake, fixating monkey (gray) (140 frames over 28   s ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ocular dominance (B, E) and orientation (C, F) maps from V1 and V2 in macaque monkey on two different days (A–C versus D–F). Black crosses in A and D indicate the alignment points used to generate transformation function between images. F–I Application of transformation to images in A–C produce images similar to D–F. (From Chen et al.[20])

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cortical response to vibrotactile stimulation of D3 and D4 in the squirrel monkey. A. Anesthetized activation prominent in Area 3b (see time course in Fig. 8). B. Awake activation prominent in Area 1 (see time courses in graphs below). C. Electrophysiologyical mapping of Areas 3a, 3b, and 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time course of optical signal in Area 3b of the squirrel monkey in response to vibrotactile stimulation of digits D2 (circle) and D4 (triangle). Awake (A) and anesthetized (B) signals were obtained from identical location in same monkey to identical stimulus. All signals measured at the D4 location.

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