Abstract

A digital phase-shifting (PS) point diffraction interferometer is demonstrated with a transmitting liquid crystal spatial light modulator. This novel wavefront sensor allows tunability in the choice of pinhole size and eliminates the need for mechanically moving parts to achieve PS. It is shown that this wavefront sensor is capable of sensing Zernike aberrations introduced with a deformable mirror. The results obtained are compared with those of a commercial Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (4)

A. R. Jewel, V. Akondi, and B. Vohnsen, JEOS RP 8, 13073 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Akondi and B. Vohnsen, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

V. Akondi, S. Castillo, and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Express 21, 18261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

1933 (1)

V. Linnik, Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 208 (1933).

Akondi, V.

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Jewel, V. Akondi, and B. Vohnsen, JEOS RP 8, 13073 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Akondi and B. Vohnsen, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Akondi, S. Castillo, and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Express 21, 18261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Akondi, M. B. Roopashree, and B. R. Prasad, in Topics in Adaptive Optics, R. K. Tyson, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 167–196.

Basavaraju, R. M.

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J.

Brock, N. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Budihal, R. P.

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Burton, D.

Castillo, S.

Clegg, D.

Creath, K.

de Araujo, R.

De Nicola, S.

Du, Y.

Feng, G.

Ferraro, P.

Gao, P.

Goelz, S.

Gomes, A.

Grilli, S.

Grimm, B.

Harder, I.

Hariharan, P.

Hayes, J. B.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herraez, M.

Jewel, A. R.

A. R. Jewel, V. Akondi, and B. Vohnsen, JEOS RP 8, 13073 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Lalor, M.

Li, H.

Liang, J.

Liao, Z.

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Lin, W.

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Linnik, V.

V. Linnik, Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 208 (1933).

Mantel, K.

Martinek, S. J.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, C.

Millerd, J. E.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

Nercissian, V.

Paturzo, M.

Pignatiello, F.

Platt, B. C.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Prasad, B. R.

V. Akondi, M. B. Roopashree, and B. R. Prasad, in Topics in Adaptive Optics, R. K. Tyson, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 167–196.

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rativa, D.

Roddier, F.

Roopashree, M. B.

V. Akondi, M. B. Roopashree, and B. R. Prasad, in Topics in Adaptive Optics, R. K. Tyson, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 167–196.

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Vargas, J.

Vohnsen, B.

V. Akondi, S. Castillo, and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Express 21, 18261 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Akondi and B. Vohnsen, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Jewel, V. Akondi, and B. Vohnsen, JEOS RP 8, 13073 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. de Araujo, A. Gomes, and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Express 17, 22047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weddell, S. J.

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J.

Wyant, J. C.

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xing, T.

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Xu, J.

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Yao, B.

Zhou, S.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 289 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JEOS RP (1)

A. R. Jewel, V. Akondi, and B. Vohnsen, JEOS RP 8, 13073 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

V. Akondi and B. Vohnsen, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. M. Basavaraju, V. Akondi, S. J. Weddell, and R. P. Budihal, Opt. Commun. 312, 23 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR (1)

V. Linnik, Proc. Acad. Sci. USSR 1, 208 (1933).

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. E. Millerd, S. J. Martinek, N. J. Brock, J. B. Hayes, and J. C. Wyant, Proc. SPIE 5380, 422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Jia, T. Xing, J. Xu, W. Lin, and Z. Liao, Proc. SPIE 8683, 86832F (2013).

Other (1)

V. Akondi, M. B. Roopashree, and B. R. Prasad, in Topics in Adaptive Optics, R. K. Tyson, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 167–196.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the digital PS-PDI. (b) Pinhole mask function.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup to demonstrate the digital PDI. All lenses are achromatic doublets and the focal lengths are shown in millimeters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the wavefronts reconstructed using a digital PDI with that measured by the HS while sensing (a) primary defocus, (b) primary astigmatism, (c) coma, and (d) secondary astigmatism. The peak-to-valley of the HS measured and the PDI reconstructed wavefronts is shown above individual wavefronts.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

As the defocus magnitude is increased, the accuracy of measuring the defocus coefficient, a4, saturates beyond a certain level.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulations: results of wavefront reconstruction using the digital PS-PDI. Here, L=108μm, l=72μm, and h=252μm. The estimated RMS wavefront error while sensing (a) primary defocus (Z02), (b) primary astigmatism (Z22), (c) primary coma (Z13), and (d) secondary astigmatism (Z24) aberrations is 3.43, 2.86, 6.41, and 6.59 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulations: the RMS wavefront error drops with increasing SNR while sensing primary defocus aberration with a peak-to-valley of 1.87 μm.

Equations (4)

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I(x,y)=|FT[FT(P(x,y).eiϕ(x,y)).M(X,Y)]|2,
M(X,Y)={eiθ1,ifL/2XL/2,andL/2YL/2eiθ2,ifl/2Xl/2,andhl/2Yh+l/2c,otherwise.
ϕ(x,y)=tan1[2I2(x,y)I3(x,y)I1(x,y)I3(x,y)I1(x,y)].
RMS=ij|ϕijϕ^ij|2N×M.

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