Abstract

We present an interferometric approach, referred to as interferometry with tripled-imaging area (ITIA), for tripling the quantitative information that can be collected in a single camera exposure while using off-axis interferometric imaging. ITIA enables optical multiplexing of three off-axis interferograms onto a single camera sensor without changing the imaging-system characteristics, such as magnification and spatial resolution, or losing temporal resolution (no scanning is involved). This approach is useful for many applications in which interferometric and holographic imaging are used. Our experimental demonstrations include quantitative phase microscopy of a transparent U.S. Air Force 1951 test target, thin diatom shells, and live human cancer cells.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).
  3. Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).
  4. V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, “Doubling the field of view in off-axis low-coherence interferometric imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, E152 (2014).

2013

2012

2011

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Opt. Express 19, 1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

2007

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

1997

Ashok, A.

Asundi, A. K.

Azzam, R. M.

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Baranes-Zeevi, M.

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Bishitz, Y.

Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).

Brady, D.

Charrière, F.

Chiarini, M.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Colomb, T.

Coppola, G.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

De Natale, P.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Ding, H.

Emery, Y.

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Ferraro, P.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Tulino, A. Finizio, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 8709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filippova, N. A.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Tulino, A. Finizio, and P. Ferraro, Opt. Express 17, 8709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gabai, H.

Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).

H. Gabai, M. Baranes-Zeevi, M. Zilberman, and N. T. Shaked, Opt. Lett. 38, 3017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Gillette, M. U.

Girshovitz, P.

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, “Doubling the field of view in off-axis low-coherence interferometric imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, E152 (2014).

Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, Opt. Express 21, 5701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Goodman, N. A.

Grilli, S.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iodice, M.

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jericho, M. H.

Jericho, S. K.

John, R.

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Klages, P.

Klemyashov, I. V.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kretushev, A. V.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, H. J.

Kühn, J.

Liu, J.

Maccagnani, P.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

Memmolo, P.

Miao, J.

Millet, L.

Mir, M.

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Opt. Express 19, 1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Montfort, F.

Neifeld, M. A.

Park, Y.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Paturzo, M.

Peng, X.

Pierattini, G.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Opt. Express 19, 1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Raikhlin, N. T.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

Rommel, C. E.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Satterwhite, L. L.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schnekenburger, J.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shaked, N. T.

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, “Doubling the field of view in off-axis low-coherence interferometric imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, E152 (2014).

Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, Opt. Express 21, 5701 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Gabai, M. Baranes-Zeevi, M. Zilberman, and N. T. Shaked, Opt. Lett. 38, 3017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1757 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, Opt. Lett. 37, 2016 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Shtil, A. A.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Striano, V.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Telen, M. J.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Treeaporn, V.

Truskey, G. A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tulino, A.

Tychinsky, V. P.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unarunotai, S.

Uttam, S.

Vollmer, A.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vyshenskaya, T. V.

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Opt. Express 19, 1016 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weible, K.

Xu, L.

Xu, W.

Zilberman, M.

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Blood Cell Mol. Dis.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cell Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

J. Biomed. Opt.

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Kemper, A. Vollmer, C. E. Rommel, J. Schnekenburger, and G. Von Bally, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 026014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tychinsky, A. V. Kretushev, I. V. Klemyashov, T. V. Vyshenskaya, N. A. Filippova, N. T. Raikhlin, and A. A. Shtil, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biophoton.

Y. Bishitz, H. Gabai, P. Girshovitz, and N. T. Shaked, J. Biophoton. 7, 1 (2013).

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

G. Coppola, V. Striano, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and P. Maccagnani, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 16, 659 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Light: Sci. Appl.

P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, “Doubling the field of view in off-axis low-coherence interferometric imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, E152 (2014).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, S. Grilli, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, P. De Natale, and M. Chiarini, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Iodice, S. Grilli, and G. Coppola, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ITIA module, connected at the output of a simple inverted microscope. The blue beams represent S-polarized light, while the orange and the green beams represent P-polarized light. HeNe, Helium–Neon laser (wavelength of 632.8 nm); S, sample; MO, microscope objective (40×; 0.66 NA, infinity corrected); L0, L1, L2, lenses (focal lengths: 16, 16, and 15 cm); POL, 45° polarizer; BS1, BS2, beam splitters; PBS, polarizing beam splitter (PBS251, Thorlabs); DF, density filter; M, mirror; PH, 30 μm pinhole; RR1, RR2, retro-reflectors made out of two mirrors connected at a right angle; RRP, retro-reflector made out of a total internal reflection prism (PS975M-A, Thorlabs). Camera, monochrome digital camera (DCC1545M, Thorlabs). Camera sensor size: 5.32mm×6.65mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ITIA for imaging 15 μm clear polymer microspheres. (a) The optically multiplexed interferogram. In the upper red boxes: a magnified region from this multiplexed interferogram, and the off-axis interference patterns encoded into this interferogram. (b) Fourier (spatial-frequency) domain. between Es represents two-dimensional spatial convolution, where Es represent the spatial Fourier transforms of the coinciding Es. (c) Reconstructed wrapped phase images of the three FOVs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

ITIA for quantitative phase imaging of a 1951 U.S. Air Force phase target. In black and white—the full target, which is larger than the camera sensor under the magnification used. Three simultaneously acquired quantitative unwrapped phase images are shown on top. The white scale bars indicate 27.62 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ITIA for quantitative phase imaging of microscopic diatom shells. (a) Multiplexed off-axis interferogram containing three FOVs. (b)–(d) Reconstructed quantitative unwrapped phase profiles of the three FOVs. The white scale bars indicate 20 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ITIA for quantitative phase imaging of HeLa cells. In muted colors—the scanned FOV (larger than the camera FOV). Three quantitative unwrapped phase images reconstructed from a single multiplexed interferogram acquired simultaneously, without any scanning. The black scale bar indicates 50 μm.

Equations (1)

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|Es1(P)+Es2(P)+Es3(S)+Er(P+S)|2=|Es1(P)|2+|Es2(P)|2+|Es3(S)|2+|Er(P+S)|2+Es1(P)Es2*(P)+Es1*(P)Es2(P)+Es1(P)Er*(P+S)+Es1*(P)Er(P+S)+Es2(P)Er*(P+S)+Es2*(P)Er(P+S)+Es3(S)Er*(P+S)+Es3*(S)Er(P+S),

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