Abstract

We show that a hemispherically shaped tip on an air-clad optical fiber simultaneously works as a high-numerical-aperture lens and efficiently collects photons from an emitter placed near the beam waist into the fundamental guided mode. Numerical simulations show that the coupling efficiency reaches about 25%. We have constructed a confocal microscope with such a lensed fiber. The measurements are in good agreement with the numerical simulation. The monolithic structure with a high-photon-collection efficiency will provide a flexible substitute for a conventional lens system in various experiments such as single-atom trapping with a tightly focused optical trap.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Springer, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

T. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 118001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

R. Brouri, A. Beveratos, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, Opt. Lett. 25, 1294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, Nature 407, 491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

1980

1974

Aljunid, S. A.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 118001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Bergamini, S.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beugnon, J.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boozer, A. D.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Brouri, R.

Browaeys, A.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buck, J. R.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chng, B.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

Darquié, B.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deloeil, D.

Diedrich, F.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dingjan, J.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eah, S.-K.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ecoffet, C.

Finazzi, V.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Brouri, A. Beveratos, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, Opt. Lett. 25, 1294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, F.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. P. A.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krausch, G.

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, H.

Kuzmich, A.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D.-J.

Lounis, B.

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, Nature 407, 491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, E. R.

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maslennikov, G.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, S.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKeever, J.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Messin, G.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, Nature 407, 491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nägerl, H. C.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poizat, J.-P.

Reymond, G.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Righini, G. C.

Royer, P.

Russo, V.

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schlosser, N.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sortais, Y.

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sottini, S.

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strouse, G.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tey, M. K.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokoyo, N.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trigari, S.

Walther, H.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, S.

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. R. Lyons and G. J. Sonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Sandoghdar, S. Wegscheider, G. Krausch, and J. Mlynek, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 118001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, Nature 407, 491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. Mason, P. Carson, G. Strouse, and S. Buratto, Nature 406, 968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. McKeever, J. R. Buck, A. D. Boozer, A. Kuzmich, H. C. Nägerl, D. M. Stamper-Kurn, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 133602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4969 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

B. Darquié, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a fiber with a hemispherical tip. d is the diameter of the stem fiber and the tip sphere. (b) Numerically calculated intensity distribution of the output beam from the hemispherical tip (d=2.5λ), where λ is the wavelength of the guided mode. The displayed data is a result on the plane parallel to the polarization of the propagating mode. Numerically calculated (c) WD and (d) FWHM of the hemispherical tip as functions of the fiber diameter d. The circles and triangles correspond to the results on the planes parallel to and perpendicular to the polarization of the propagating mode of the light, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Coupling efficiency from a dipole radiating into the fundamental guided mode of the air-clad stem fiber (d=3λ). The dipole is located on the plane containing the fiber axis, and the dipole polarization is parallel to the plane. (b) Coupling efficiency and (c) intensity distribution of the output mode as functions of the distance from the tip surface. We attribute the sharp peak of the coupling efficiency near the tip surface observed for the case of d=2λ to the Purcell effect on the dielectric surface of the tip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. FC denotes a fiber coupler. Inset shows a SEM image of the fabricated hemispherical fiber tip. The scale bar corresponds to 3 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Obtained profile of (a) a Cr line in a grid array and (b) a GNP in the confocal microscopy with hemispherical fiber tips. Insets in (a) and (b) display conventional optical microscope images of the Cr grid and the GNPs. The scale bars in the insets correspond to 10 and 4 μm for (a) and (b), respectively. The blue and green lines represent data taken with the fibers that have diameters of 7 and 2.6 μm, respectively. These lines are vertically offset for clarity. The dashed lines in (a) denote the Cr stripe width of 1.4 μm, which was determined from the optical microscope image. The red circles in (b) denote the simulation result.

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