Abstract

We report on the successful trapping and patterning of micro- and nanometric particles on the surface of LiNbO3 optical waveguides via photovoltaic tweezers. A waveguide configuration is used for the first time combined with this recently proposed technique. The electric field pattern is generated by light propagating in the waveguide, allowing us to separate the light channel with the region in which particles are deposited. Results on micro- and nanoparticle trapping, by two different deposition methods on two types of planar waveguides (by soft proton exchanged and by swift heavy ion irradiation), and using single-beam and two-beam interferometric configuration, are presented and discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Cheng, C. Rangan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 743 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Glaesener, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 37, 3744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. Rooney, A. Rezaee, S. Xu, T. Manifar, A. Hassanzadeh, G. Podoprygorina, V. Böhmer, and C. Rangan, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Carnicero, A. Méndez, M. Carrascosa, and A. García-Cabañes, Ferroelectrics 352, 86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 14322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Chuiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. Ashkin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. de Miguel, J. Limeres, M. Carrascosa, and L. Arizmendi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Adamovsky, G.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adleman, J. R.

H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, H. Burgos, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, A. Blázquez-Castro, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Express 19, 24320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2006), Vol. 113, pp. 43–82.

Alcazar, A.

Alcázar, A.

O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

Aschieri, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blázquez-Castro, A.

Böhmer, V.

P. Rooney, A. Rezaee, S. Xu, T. Manifar, A. Hassanzadeh, G. Podoprygorina, V. Böhmer, and C. Rangan, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briseno, A. L.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgos, H.

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, H. Burgos, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, A. Blázquez-Castro, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Express 19, 24320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

F. Luedtke, N. Waasem, K. Buse, and B. Sturman, Appl. Phys. B 105, 35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

Calvo, G. F.

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2006), Vol. 113, pp. 43–82.

Carnicero, J.

Carrascosa, M.

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, H. Burgos, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, A. Blázquez-Castro, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Express 19, 24320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, F. Luedtke, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, A. Alcazar, and B. Ramiro, Opt. Express, 18, 20852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, A. Méndez, M. Carrascosa, and A. García-Cabañes, Ferroelectrics 352, 86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. de Miguel, J. Limeres, M. Carrascosa, and L. Arizmendi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2006), Vol. 113, pp. 43–82.

Chanvillard, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

Chuiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chuiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Curley, M. J.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Micheli, M.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Miguel, E. M.

Denz, C.

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Glaesener, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 37, 3744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, F. Holtmann, M. Woerdemann, and C. Denz, Opt. Express 18, 17404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggert, H. A.

H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

Esseling, M.

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Glaesener, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 37, 3744 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, F. Holtmann, M. Woerdemann, and C. Denz, Opt. Express 18, 17404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Ferraro, P.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fields, A.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fridkin, V. M.

B. I. Sturmann and V. M. Fridkin, Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Non-centrosymmetric Materials (Gordon and Breach Science, 1992).

García, G.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, H. Burgos, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, A. Blázquez-Castro, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Express 19, 24320 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, F. Luedtke, M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, A. Alcazar, and B. Ramiro, Opt. Express, 18, 20852 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa, J. Villarroel, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, Opt. Express 16, 115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, A. Méndez, M. Carrascosa, and A. García-Cabañes, Ferroelectrics 352, 86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Caballero, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, M. Carrascosa, and A. Alcázar, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glaesener, S.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hassanzadeh, A.

P. Rooney, A. Rezaee, S. Xu, T. Manifar, A. Hassanzadeh, G. Podoprygorina, V. Böhmer, and C. Rangan, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holtmann, F.

Huang, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imbrock, J.

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jubera, M.

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Kuhnert, F. Y.

H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limeres, J.

Ling, M.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, S.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luedtke, F.

Manifar, T.

P. Rooney, A. Rezaee, S. Xu, T. Manifar, A. Hassanzadeh, G. Podoprygorina, V. Böhmer, and C. Rangan, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mannsfeld, S. C. B.

A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Memmolo, P.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Carnicero, A. Méndez, M. Carrascosa, and A. García-Cabañes, Ferroelectrics 352, 86 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. L.

S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nava, G.

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J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
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A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
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Yang, Y.

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Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, N. Argiolas, G. Nava, J. Imbrock, I. Cristiani, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. B 113, 191 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, and O. Caballero, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

M. Esseling, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and C. Denz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 061115 (2013).
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S. S. Sarkisov, M. J. Curley, N. V. Kukhtarev, A. Fields, G. Adamovsky, C. C. Smith, and E. L. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 901 (2001).
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H. A. Eggert, F. Y. Kuhnert, K. Buse, J. R. Adleman, and D. Psaltis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241909 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

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L. Miccio, P. Memmolo, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, Lab Chip 12, 4449 (2012).
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D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
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P. Y. Chuiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
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A. L. Briseno, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, M. Ling, S. Liu, R. J. Tseng, C. Reese, M. E. Roberts, Y. Yang, F. Wudl, and Z. Bao, Nature 444, 913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B (1)

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, G. García, A. García-Cabañes, and M. Carrascosa, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 257, 765 (2007).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Burgos, M. Jubera, J. Villarroel, A. García-Cabañes, F. Agulló-López, and M. Carrascosa, Opt. Mater. 35, 1700 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Rooney, A. Rezaee, S. Xu, T. Manifar, A. Hassanzadeh, G. Podoprygorina, V. Böhmer, and C. Rangan, Phys. Rev. B 77, 235446 (2008).
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Other (2)

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2006), Vol. 113, pp. 43–82.

B. I. Sturmann and V. M. Fridkin, Photovoltaic and Photorefractive Effects in Non-centrosymmetric Materials (Gordon and Breach Science, 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Refractive index profiles (solid line) and normalized intensity profiles of the fundamental mode (dashed line) for the SHI and SPE WG. (b) Scheme of the two-beam interferometric configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photograph of the CaCO3 microparticle patterns trapped on the surface of a SHI (a) and SPE (b) waveguide after single-beam propagation. (c) Diagram of the redistribution of charge in the waveguide plane along the c axis due to the light-induced PV field.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microphotograph of CO3Ca particle patterns (diameter d13μm) deposited in air after sinusoidal light illumination (Λ=50μm) for the SHI (a) and SPE (b) waveguides.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microphotograph of Al particle (diameter d70nm) patterns deposited from a hexane suspension after sinusoidal light illumination (Λ=50μm) for the SHI (a) and SPE (b) waveguides. (c) Pattern corresponding to the same SHI WG and experiment of (a) but showing a region centered on a longer propagation length. The magnification is smaller so that a larger area can be seen.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Microphotographs of CO3Ca particle patterns (diameter d13μm) deposited from hexane on the SHI WG after sinusoidal light illumination (Λ=65μm) during 30 s (a) and 3 s (b).

Equations (1)

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F⃗DEP=∇⃗(p⃗·E⃗PV),

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