Abstract

A mode-locked chromium forsterite laser with output power in excess of 0.7 W, a central wavelength of 1.25 μm, a pulse repetition rate of 29 MHz, and an output pulse-width-tunable from 40 to 200 fs is demonstrated. The dynamics behind the buildup of ultrashort light pulses in this laser is shown to involve spectral and temporal breathing due to the interplay of gain, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion effects. The pulse-width-tunable 1.25 μm output delivered by the developed laser source suggests a powerful tool for nonlinear-optical bio-imaging and offers an advantageous front end for extreme-power laser technologies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
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L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
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Curley, P. F.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
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der Au, J. A.

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L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, A. B.

Fedotov, I. V.

Fermann, M. E.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
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Freidman, G. I.

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Garanin, S. G.

Gerke, R. R.

Ginzburg, V. N.

Haus, H. A.

Hofer, M.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

Ippen, E. P.

Itatani, T.

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[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

Ivanov, A. A.

S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, M.-R. Tsai, M.-C. Chan, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Express 18, 24085 (2010).
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L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
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Keller, U.

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S. M. J. Kelly, Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
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Khazanov, E. A.

Kirsanov, A. V.

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Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lanin, A. A.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Savvin, A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 35, 919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

Liu, T.-M.

Lozhkarev, V. V.

Luchinin, G. A.

Mal’shakov, A. N.

Martyanov, M. A.

Minkov, B. I.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, Opt. Commun. 116, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, Opt. Lett. 18, 1541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Nakagawa, T.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ober, M. H.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, Opt. Commun. 116, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palashov, O. V.

Pang, Y.

Petricevic, V.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poteomkin, A. K.

Rukavishnikov, N. N.

Rullière, C.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, Opt. Commun. 116, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Savvin, A. D.

Scheuer, V.

Schmidt, A. J.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seas, A.

Sergeev, A. M.

Shank, C. V.

Shaykin, A. A.

Shcheslavskiy, V.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sugaya, T.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sukharev, S. A.

Sun, C.-K.

Takahashi, H.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.-J.

Tsai, M.-R.

Tsai, T.-H.

Tschudi, T.

Voronin, A. A.

Wintner, E.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

Yakovlev, I. V.

Yakovlev, V. V.

Yanovsky, V.

Yashin, V. E.

Yu, C.-H.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, T. Nakagawa, and H. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 23, 1465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Savvin, A. A. Lanin, A. A. Voronin, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 35, 919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, A. A. Ivanov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, M.-R. Tsai, M.-C. Chan, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, Opt. Express 18, 24085 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Voronin, I. V. Fedotov, A. A. Ivanov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 34, 851 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 174, 743 (2004).

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. 10, 796 (2000).

Zots, M. A.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. V. Doronina-Amitonova, A. A. Lanin, O. I. Ivashkina, M. A. Zots, A. B. Fedotov, K. V. Anokhin, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. M. J. Kelly, Electron. Lett. 28, 806 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2097 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, K. Torizuka, T. Itatani, K. Kobayashi, T. Sugaya, and T. Nakagawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1975 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron.

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Selected Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 159 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Phys.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Laser Phys. 10, 796 (2000).

Opt. Commun.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, Opt. Commun. 116, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. Bouma, S. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 174, 743 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the Cr: forsterite laser with spectrograms calculated for reference points inside the laser cavity: Cr: F, Cr: forsterite crystal; P1 to P2, prisms; M1 to M8, mirrors; Yb, ytterbium fiber pump laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse width (solid line) and the bandwidth (dashed line) of the laser pulse (a) and the pulse energy (b) and (c) at different points inside the Cr: forsterite laser cavity in scheme 2 (b) and scheme 1 (c) with γ0=0.45MW1cm1, k2=490fs2/cm, k3=1680fs3/cm, β2=3220fs2, β3=6270fs3, d=39cm, q=0.4mm1, Psat=2.5MW, g0=4cm1, Wsat=7.8nJ, and βnet=1560fs2. The spectral-bandwidth and spectral-width curves in panel (a) for schemes 1 and 2 are almost indistinguishable.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of (a)–(d) the pulse envelope (navy solid line) and temporal phase (pink dashed line), as well as (e) through (h) the spectrum (navy solid line) and the spectral phase (pink dashed line) at the points A (a) and (e); B (b) and (f); C (c) and (g); D (d) and (h) in the Cr: forsterite laser cavity with parameters as specified in Fig. 2. Blue and green dashed–dotted lines show an ideally flat phase (a), (c), (e), and (g), the phase φSPM (b) and φSPM (d) induced by SPM in the laser crystal, and the phase induced by the dispersion of the prisms (f) and (h).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse width (a) and (b) and spectra (c) and (d) of the laser pulse at points A (a) and (c) and C (b) and (d) in the Cr: forsterite laser cavity with parameters as specified in Fig. 2. Transform-limited pulses are shown by the dashed line. The experimental spectrum (red line) is shown versus simulations (blue line) in panel (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Output pulse width (solid and dashed lines) and the time–bandwidth product (dotted and dashed–dotted lines) for a Cr: forsterite laser as a function of the net cavity dispersion for scheme 1 (dashed and dotted lines) and scheme 2 (solid and dashed–dotted lines) with laser parameters as specified in Fig. 2: (lines) simulations, (dots) experimental results. (b) Experimental (solid line) and theoretical (dashed line) output spectra for β2=8860fs2, β3=15850fs3, d=83cm, and βnet=7200fs2 and (c) The laser output spectra for (curve 1) β2=3220fs2, β3=6270fs3, and βnet=1560fs2, d=39cm, (curve 2) β2=4630fs2, β3=8670fs3, d=50cm, and βnet=4630fs2, and (curve 3) β2=8860fs2, β3=15850fs3, d=83cm, and βnet=7200fs2 with γ0=0.54MW1cm1, k2=490fs2/cm, k3=1680fs3/cm, q=1.0mm1, Psat=2.5MW, g0=4cm1, and Wsat=17.8nJ.

Equations (1)

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zA(ω,z)=iD^(ω)A(ω,z)+F^[iγ0T^|A(η,z)|2A(η,z)q01+P(η,z)/PsatA(η,z)]+g(ω)A(η,z)1+W(z)/Wsat,

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