Abstract

Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging modality for noninvasive deep tissue blood flow monitoring that is becoming increasingly popular; it conducts an autocorrelation analysis of fast fluctuating photon count signals from a single speckle. In this Letter, we show that the same level of deep tissue flow information can be obtained from a much simpler analysis on the spatial distribution of the speckles that is obtained by a CCD camera, which we named diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA). Both the flow phantom experiment and in vivo cuff occlusion data are presented. DSCA can be considered a new optical modality that combines DCS and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), which exploits simple instrumentation and analysis and yet is sensitive to deep tissue flow.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Q. Yu, S. Shultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Express 17, 12571 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2005 (2)

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174(1996).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arger, P. H.

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bi, R.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192(1997).
[CrossRef]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174(1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E. M.

Chance, B.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, R.

Choe, R.

Choi, B.

Cook, N. M.

Cuccia, D. J.

Dixon, P. K.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L. X.

Dunn, A. K.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Q. Yu, S. Shultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Express 17, 12571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durian, D. J.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gittings, A. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. H.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hurt, H.

Irwin, D.

Kim, M. N.

Konecky, S. D.

Lech, G.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Licht, D. J.

Mazhar, A.

Mohler, E. R.

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Putt, M. E.

Rice, T. B.

Sehgal, C. M.

Shang, Y.

Shultz, S.

Soo, K.-C.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suh, S. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thong, P. S. P.

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174(1996).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Q. Yu, S. Shultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Express 17, 12571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192(1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. Q.

Zhao, Y. Q.

Zhou, C.

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

G. Q. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, R. Bi, J. H. Ho, P. S. P. Thong, K.-C. Soo, and K. Lee, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 097004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174(1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 093110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a traditional DCS setup, where D is a photon counting detector and a hardware correlator. (b) Schematic of DSCA setup, where the CCD camera takes images of the speckle pattern on the sample surface. The shaded region in the sample represents the sensitivity volume of the source–detector pair.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the flow-controlled phantom experiment. Speckle images, before and after the processing, are shown in pseudocolor. See text for details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Summary of simulated and experimental data. (a) Numerical simulation of 1/Ks2 as a function of αDb, with exposure time T of 0.1 ms. (b) 1/Ks2 plotted against flow rate, for comparison between the flow depth inside and outside the sensitivity volume, at the same source–detector separation of 2.32 cm. (c) 1/Ks2 as a function of the flow rate for 3 source–detector separations. The slope can be regarded as the sensitivity to the flow rate. (d) Flow sensitivities measured at 10 different source–detector separations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simultaneous measurement of rBF by DCS and DSCA systems during arm cuff occlusion protocol.

Equations (4)

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(13μs2+μa+13αμsk02Δr2(τ))G1(r⃗,τ)=S(r⃗),
V(T)=[Ks(T)]2=2T0T(1τ/T)[g1(τ)]2dτ.
G1(r,τ)=3μs4π[exp(kD(τ)r1)r1exp(kD(τ)r2)r2],
g1(r,τ)=G1(r,τ)/G1(r,0),

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