Abstract

We demonstrate ultrahigh-sensitivity silicon photonic sensors based on two cascaded double-ring resonators operating in transverse-magnetic mode. Both wavelength interrogation and intensity interrogation methods are experimentally investigated and the sensitivities reached 24,300 nm/RIU and 2430dB/RIU, respectively. We also show that the double-ring sensors can be simply cascaded to realize simultaneous detection of multiple species, which is very promising for low-cost array applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. de Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 7610 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 33, 596 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.
  5. L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, Opt. Express 18, 22747 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Lett. 36, 1128 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1994 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 34, 3598 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 35, 2771 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Lett. 36, 1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, Opt. Express 18, 22747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 35, 2771 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

K. de Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 15, 7610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Cheben, P.

Claes, T.

de Vos, K.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-J.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1994 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Lett. 36, 1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jin, L.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1994 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Lett. 36, 1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 33, 596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Li, M.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 1994 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Lett. 36, 1128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

Ma, R.

Mischki, T.

Mitchell, A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Schimid, J. H.

Schmid, J. H.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schimid, Opt. Lett. 33, 596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, A. L.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Anal. Chem.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 81, 9499 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, Opt. Commun. 284, 156 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical microscope image of two cascaded double-ring sensors, and (b) SEM images of the waveguide cross section and (c) the directional coupler.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transmission spectra at (a) sensor 1 output, (b) sensor 2 output, and (c) reference output.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured wavelength shift versus refractive index change of aqueous solutions of NaCl with different concentrations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured power ratio versus refractive index change.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power ratio between sensor 2 output and reference output as a function of the sample refractive index change with the FSR difference between the reference rings of the two sensors as a parameter.

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