Abstract

We have investigated an IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules adsorbed on the surface of uncooled thermal micromechanical detectors. Although we use a chemical layer to absorb target molecules, IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy requires no chemical specific coatings. The chemical specificity of the presented method is a consequence of the wavelength-specific absorption of IR photons from tunable quantum cascade lasers due to vibrational spectral bands of the analyte. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine and a monolayer of 2-Sulfanylethan-1-ol (2-mercaptoethanol) over the wavelength region from 6 to 10 μm. We found that both chemicals exhibit a number of photothermal absorption features that are in good agreement with their respective IR spectra.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 42, 1 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. E. Stein, NIST Chemistry WebBook, eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2012). http://webbook.nist.gov/ .

2012

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 42, 1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 41, 1051 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. M. Li, L. W. Burggraf, and W. P. Baker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, W. P.

G. M. Li, L. W. Burggraf, and W. P. Baker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. R.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burggraf, L. W.

G. M. Li, L. W. Burggraf, and W. P. Baker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chae, I.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P. G.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finot, E.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, C.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, D. A.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holthoff, E. L.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, S. R.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jung, N.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krause, A. R.

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavrik, N. V.

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. M.

G. M. Li, L. W. Burggraf, and W. P. Baker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, M.-H.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oden, P. I.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oshea, S.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Passian, A.

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P. M.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rajic, S.

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rayment, T.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rouger, V.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seigneuric, R.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Senesac, L.

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sepaniak, M. J.

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, L. A.

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 42, 1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 41, 1051 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stein, S. E.

S. E. Stein, NIST Chemistry WebBook, eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2012). http://webbook.nist.gov/ .

Stephenson, R.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, R. J.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Neste, C.

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wachter, E. A.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wig, A.

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodburn, C.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yun, M.

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. M. Li, L. W. Burggraf, and W. P. Baker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Yun, S. Kim, D. Lee, N. Jung, I. Chae, S. Jeon, and T. Thundat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 204103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, P. I. Oden, T. Thundat, E. A. Wachter, R. J. Warmack, and S. R. Hunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2986 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. R. Krause, C. Van Neste, L. Senesac, T. Thundat, and E. Finot, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094906 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. R. Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, M. E. Welland, C. Gerber, and J. K. Gimzewski, Nature 372, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 41, 1051 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Skvortsov, Quantum Electron. 42, 1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. Barnes, R. Stephenson, C. Woodburn, S. Oshea, M. Welland, T. Rayment, J. Gimzewski, and C. Gerber, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Lavrik, M. J. Sepaniak, and P. G. Datskos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Datskos, N. V. Lavrik, and S. Rajic, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1134 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

E. Finot, V. Rouger, L. Markey, R. Seigneuric, M.-H. Nadal, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 169, 222 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Wig, E. T. Arakawa, A. Passian, T. L. Ferrell, and T. Thundat, Sens. Actuators B 114, 206 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

E. T. Arakawa, N. V. Lavrik, S. Rajic, and P. G. Datskos, Ultramicroscopy 97, 459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. E. Stein, NIST Chemistry WebBook, eds. P. J. Linstrom and W. G. Mallard (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2012). http://webbook.nist.gov/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cantilever bending was measured using a readout technique similar to that used in atomic force spectroscopy. The cantilever was exposed to a tunable mid-IR QCL. Examples of cantilevers used in the present study. (b) 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine coated cantilever used in our study. (c) 2-mercaptoethanol monolayer coated cantilever.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

IR spectrum of RDX obtained by photothermal measurement (solid curve), compared with transmission FTIR spectrum (dashed curve).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photothermal IR spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol (solid curve) and the NIST/EPA gas-phase IR transmission spectrum (dashed curve).

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