Abstract

We present a design of phase-contrast filters embedded in a three-dimensional pupil to form phase-coded volume holographic gratings (VHGs) for spatial–spectral imaging. The phase-coded VHG improves image contrast and results in strong filtering properties to acquire weak phase structures of an object. In addition, incorporated with in-plane angle multiplexing, the multiplexed phase-coded VHGs enable obtaining weak phase information from multiple depths of an object. We experimentally demonstrate the multiplexed phase-coded VHGs for spatial–spectral imaging to enhance unstained features of spatial–spectral images of human breast cancer cells.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

J. M. Castro, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, Appl. Opt. 50, 1388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, E. Leon, J. Castro, J. Lee, J. K. Barton, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, Opt. Lett. 36, 1290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, S.-W. Min, B. Lee, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Opt. 47, D164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, Opt. Lett. 33, 2098 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Barbastathis, G.

Barton, J. K.

Blanche, P.-A.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

Castro, J. M.

J. M. Castro, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, Appl. Opt. 50, 1388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.

Flores, D.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gelsinger, P. J.

Gelsinger-Austin, P. J.

J. M. Castro, P. J. Gelsinger-Austin, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, Appl. Opt. 50, 1388 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gu, T.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

Kim, H.

Kostuk, R. K.

Lee, B.

Lee, J.

Leon, E.

Li, G.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Luo, Y.

Min, S.-W.

Norwood, R. A.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. B.

Paek, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poon, T.-C.

Psaltis, D.

Rokutanda, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, T.

Sinha, A.

St Hilaire, P.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, A. W.

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, Opt. Eng. 42, 1184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tay, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tunç, A. V.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voorakaranam, R.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.-A.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Nature (1)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 451, 694 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. C. Sun, Opt. Eng. 42, 1184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis, and G. T. Sincerbox, eds., Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental arrangement for recording a spatial filter-encoded VHG within the 3D volume holographic pupil.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometry of a 4-f volume holographic imaging system, in which the spatial filter-encoded volume hologram is at the Fourier plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of images of an air-force resolution chart. (a) Detailed images of the resolution chart obtained by the phase contrast filter-encoded VHG. Right-hand side inset: contrast ratio of different features on the resolution target. (b) Detailed images of the resolution chart obtained by a conventional VHG without a knife-edge spatial filter embedded at the volume hologram pupil. Right-hand side inset: contrast ratio of its corresponding features in (a) on the resolution target. Images obtained by the phase-contrast filter-encoded VHG show significant improvement of features on different numbered elements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image of unstained features within the same human breast cancer cells: (a) obtained simultaneously from a single camera frame, but this time using two multiplexed knife-edge filter-encoded VHGs, and (b) obtained using conventional VHGs (i.e., without a knife-edge spatial filter embedded at the volume hologram pupil).

Equations (10)

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Pf(x,z)=exp{i2πλz},
Qs(x,z)=exp{i2πλz}M(x)exp{i2πλθsx}exp{iπ(xx)2λz}dx,
h(x1;x0)=ζ(x0+x1λf,x02x122λf2),
ζ(u,w)=I[ε(x,z)s(x,z)]=ξ(u,w)S(u,w),
ξ(u,w)=I[ε(x,z)]=I[Pf*(x,z)Qs(x,z)]={M(x)ei2πλθsxeiπλ[(xx)2z]dx}ei2π(xu+zw)dxdz=δ(w+λ2u2)M(uθsλ),
M(u)=12[δ(u)+1iπu],
s(x,z)=rect(xa)rect(zL).
ξ(u,w)S(u,w)=aL2sinc[a(uθsλ)]sinc[L(w+θs22λ)]+Hx(u,w),
Hx(u,w)=sinc(au)u{[1/iπ(uθs/λ)]sinc[L(w+(λ/2)u2)]},
h(x1;x0)=12h0(x1;x0)+12hke(x1;x0),hke(x1;x0)=aLx(x0+x1λf,x02x122λf2),

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