Abstract

Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a hybrid technique that combines optical excitation and ultrasonic detection to provide high-resolution images in deep tissues. In the image reconstruction, a constant speed of sound (SOS) is normally assumed. This assumption, however, is often not strictly satisfied in deep tissue imaging, due to acoustic heterogeneities within the object and between the object and the coupling medium. If these heterogeneities are not accounted for, they will cause distortions and artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this Letter, we incorporated ultrasonic computed tomography (USCT), which measures the SOS distribution within the object, into our full-ring array PACT system. Without the need for ultrasonic transmitting electronics, USCT was performed using the same laser beam as for PACT measurement. By scanning the laser beam on the array surface, we can sequentially fire different elements. As a first demonstration of the system, we studied the effect of acoustic heterogeneities on photoacoustic vascular imaging. We verified that constant SOS is a reasonable approximation when the SOS variation is small. When the variation is large, distortion will be observed in the periphery of the object, especially in the tangential direction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Jin and L. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 6437 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).
  13. B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

2011

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 6437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Anastasio, M.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anastasio, M. A.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arbeit, J.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Babkin, A.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P. C.

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bohndiek, S.

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

Brecht, H.-P.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, D.

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Chatni, M.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chatni, M. R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Conjusteau, A.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cox, B. T.

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dragulescu-Andrasi, A.

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

Duric, N.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ermilov, S. A.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, M.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

Gamelin, J.

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Glide, C.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Guo, Z.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holsapple, E.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Jin, X.

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 6437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jose, J.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J. G.

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Littrup, P.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manohar, S.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, K.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maurudis, A.

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Mistretta, C.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, T.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nie, L.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pevzner, R.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Picot, P.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poulo, L.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rama, O.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, D.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasportas, L. S.

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

Schoonover, R. W.

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slump, C. H.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, R.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stantz, K.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, W.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, R.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, M.

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Treeby, B. E.

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van de Sompel, D.

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

van der Heijden, F.

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Varslot, T. K.

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 6437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemink, R. G. H.

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, J.

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E. Z.

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.

J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, P. Guo, L. V. Wang, and Q. Zhu, Opt. Express 17, 10489 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Manohar, R. G. H. Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H.-P. Brecht, R. Su, M. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, and A. A. Oraevsky, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, L. Nie, R. W. Schoonover, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 061211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xia, M. Chatni, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, K. Wang, M. Anastasio, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 050506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chatni, J. Xia, R. Sohn, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Xia, M. Anastasio, J. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 076012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Treeby and B. T. Cox, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021314 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Treeby, T. K. Varslot, E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 090501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

N. Duric, P. Littrup, L. Poulo, A. Babkin, R. Pevzner, E. Holsapple, O. Rama, and C. Glide, Med. Phys. 34, 773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Jose, R. G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, Med. Phys. 39, 7262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

X. Jin and L. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 6437 (2006).
[CrossRef]

PLoS One

D. Van de Sompel, L. S. Sasportas, A. Dragulescu-Andrasi, S. Bohndiek, and S. S. Gambhir, PLoS One 7, e45337 (2012).

Proc. SPIE

R. Kruger, D. Reinecke, G. Kruger, M. Thornton, P. Picot, T. Morgan, K. Stantz, and C. Mistretta, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770F (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Gamelin, D. Castillo, Q. Zhu, A. Aguirre, F. Huang, and A. Maurudis, in Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy (CRC Press, 2009), pp. 309–328.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Integrated photoacoustic and USCT system. (a) Schematic of the system. (b) Raw-channel data from a PACT measurement. (c) Raw-channel data from an USCT measurement. White arrows: photoacoustic signals generated on the transducer surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerical phantom studies. (a) Numerical leaf phantoms showing the distribution of optical absorption in arbitrary units. (b) and (c) Photoacoustic images reconstructed using a constant SOS that renders the sharpest image. The initial pressure data were simulated by assigning the SOS within the leaf to be 1.52 and 1.55mm/μs in (b) and (c), respectively. The SOS in water is 1.5mm/μs for all cases. The number written at the bottom right corner of each image is the observed vessel split.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Demonstration of the distortion effect. True traveling distance of a photoacoustic signal, dtrue=Σ(ti×vi). The estimated traveling distance used in image reconstruction, dest=t×vo.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental images of an excised mouse kidney. (a) SOS map obtained from USCT measurement. (b) PACT image within the dashed box in (a) reconstructed using a constant SOS that renders the sharpest image. (c) PACT image reconstructed using the SOS map in (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results of a leaf phantom. (a) Photograph of the skeleton leaf embedded in an agar gel with SOS of 1.535mm/μs. (b) PACT image reconstructed using a constant average SOS, which was optimized for image sharpness. (c) Zoomed-in view of the veins within the dashed box indicated in (b). (d) SOS map obtained from USCT measurement. (e) PACT image reconstructed using the SOS map in (d). (f) Zoomed-in view of the veins within the box indicated in (e).

Equations (4)

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ΔT=L(1cw1c(x,y))dl,
vo=rarobjvobj+rarobjvw,
t=ra2robj2v0.
Δd=(vovw)×t.

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