Abstract

In this Letter, a new algorithm is proposed to detect salient regions by combining spatial and spectral information. First, the input image is considered in both RGB color space and Lab color space. Second, the biggest symmetric surround model and spectral residual are calculated in each channel simultaneously. Third, the feature maps in some color channels outperform the feature maps in the other channels. Entropy is defined to evaluate the performance of the feature maps, which can be used to choose the proper channels and combine different feature maps. Finally, a Gaussian low-pass filter is applied to improve the performance by accounting for the center bias. Compared with previous methods, our saliency detection is more effective and robust as demonstrated by the experiments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. H. Tsai, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 33, 1587 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Mahadevan and N. Vasconcelos, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1007–1013.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).
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  14. M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

2013 (1)

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

Y. H. Tsai, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 33, 1587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

2006 (2)

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, J. Han, and K. N. Ngan, IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8, 1117 (2006).

1998 (1)

L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, Nature 388, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Achanta, R.

R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1597–1604.

R. Achanta and S. Susstrunk, in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2653–2656 (2010).

An, X.

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Atrey, P. K.

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

Borji, A.

A. Borji and L. Itti, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 478–485.

Bruce, N.

N. Bruce and J. Tsotsos, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems18 (MIT, 2006), pp. 155–162.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, J. Han, and K. N. Ngan, IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8, 1117 (2006).

Cheng, M. M.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

El Saddik, A.

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

Engel, S.

S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, Nature 388, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Estrada, F.

R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1597–1604.

Han, J.

Z. Chen, J. Han, and K. N. Ngan, IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8, 1117 (2006).

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hemami, S.

R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1597–1604.

Hossain, M. A.

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

Hou, X.

X. Hou and L. Zhang, in Proccedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8.

Hu, S. M.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

Huang, X.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

Itti, L.

L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Borji and L. Itti, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 478–485.

Kankanhalli, M. S.

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

Koch, C.

L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M. D.

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan, V.

V. Mahadevan and N. Vasconcelos, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1007–1013.

Mitra, N. J.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

Ngan, K. N.

Z. Chen, J. Han, and K. N. Ngan, IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8, 1117 (2006).

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niebur, E.

L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Susstrunk, S.

R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1597–1604.

R. Achanta and S. Susstrunk, in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2653–2656 (2010).

Tsai, Y. H.

Y. H. Tsai, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 33, 1587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsotsos, J.

N. Bruce and J. Tsotsos, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems18 (MIT, 2006), pp. 155–162.

Vasconcelos, N.

V. Mahadevan and N. Vasconcelos, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1007–1013.

Wandell, B.

S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, Nature 388, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. X.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

Zhang, H. J.

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Hou and L. Zhang, in Proccedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8.

Zhang, X.

S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, Nature 388, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

J. Han, K. N. Ngan, M. Li, and H. J. Zhang, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16, 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Multimedia (1)

Z. Chen, J. Han, and K. N. Ngan, IEEE Trans. Multimedia 8, 1117 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (2)

L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20, 1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, M. D. Levine, X. An, X. Xu, and H. He, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 35, 996 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Multimedia systems (1)

P. K. Atrey, M. A. Hossain, A. El Saddik, and M. S. Kankanhalli, Multimedia systems 16, 345 (2010).

Nature (1)

S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, Nature 388, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

Y. H. Tsai, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 33, 1587 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

N. Bruce and J. Tsotsos, in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems18 (MIT, 2006), pp. 155–162.

M. M. Cheng, G. X. Zhang, N. J. Mitra, X. Huang, and S. M. Hu, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 409–416.

A. Borji and L. Itti, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2012), pp. 478–485.

R. Achanta and S. Susstrunk, in 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2653–2656 (2010).

V. Mahadevan and N. Vasconcelos, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1007–1013.

X. Hou and L. Zhang, in Proccedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8.

R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1597–1604.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Framework of our proposed method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Examples of saliency maps on the MSRA and BET dataset. (a) Original images. (b)–(f) Saliency maps achieved by the methods SR [6], FT [7], HC [14], RC [14], and the proposed method, respectively. (g) Ground truth masks.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of different algorithms by ROC.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Different Algorithms by AUC

Tables Icon

Table 2. RGB Versus Lab for Saliency Detection

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S(x,y)=1A(s,t)U|I(x,y)I(s,t)|,
R(u,v)=log(A(u,v))δ1log(A(u,v)),
S(x,y)=δ2·|F1(exp(R(u,v))+i·P(u,v))|2,
Wi=1K1H2D(Si(x,y)),
Smap=i=13WiSi(x,y)).

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