Abstract

We present speckle suppression and dispersion compensation for Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography based on fractional Fourier transforms of a single A scan. A 1.54-fold reduction in speckle contrast was achieved with group velocity dispersion compensation. The method is demonstrated on biological samples using a swept source configuration at 1310 nm and a spectral-domain system at 840 nm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).
  3. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. R. Hillman, S. G. Adie, V. Seemann, J. J. Armstrong, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 31, 190 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, Opt. Lett. 35, 2445 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Namias, IMA J. Appl. Math. 25, 241 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Lippok, S. Coen, P. Nielsen, and F. Vanholsbeeck, Opt. Express 20, 23398 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2010

2007

2006

2003

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

V. Namias, IMA J. Appl. Math. 25, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Adie, S. G.

Arikan, O.

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. J.

Bilenca, A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bozdagi, G.

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Curatolo, A.

Desjardins, A. E.

Drexler, W.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, T. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Kennedy, B. F.

Kutay, M. A.

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lippok, N.

Namias, V.

V. Namias, IMA J. Appl. Math. 25, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, P.

Ozaktas, H. M.

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seemann, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process.

H. M. Ozaktas, O. Arikan, M. A. Kutay, and G. Bozdagi, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 44, 2141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IMA J. Appl. Math.

V. Namias, IMA J. Appl. Math. 25, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 98 (1992).

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Speckle corrupted B scan of human fingernail obtained with SS OCT system (λ0=1310nm). Bars correspond to 1 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Speckle boundary variations for single FrFT orders obtained with SS OCT system. (a) Speckle for FrFT order a=1. (b) Speckle for FrFT order a=1.005. (c) Speckle for FrFT order a=1.02. High-contrast regions are red color-coded using the same intensity threshold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) PSF broadening for different FrFT orders. Theoretical curve obtained for nω=614, nz=7. (b) Speckle contrast reduction factor, κ, and corresponding broadening, f, due to compounding different order spans Δa (n=6). (c) Broadening for different No. of FrFT orders used for averaging. (d) κ for several No. of FrFTs used for averaging. All data obtained with SS OCT system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) and (d) Standard FT (no compounding). (b) and (e) κ=1.54, f=1.47, Δa=0.024, and n=6. (c) and (f) κ=1.76, f=3.08, Δa=0.042, and n=6. Images obtained with SS OCT system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Human finger using SD OCT system (λ0=840nm, nz=6.7, nω=1394). (a) Traditional FT. (b) Information gain due to dispersion compensation using single FrFT, aZD=1.016. (c) Information gain due to speckle reduction and dispersion compensation. FrFT compounding, aZD=1.016, Δa=0.012, n=7 with κ=1.6, f=1.8. (d) FrFT compounding, aZD=1.016, Δa=0.02, n=7 with κ=1.97, f=3.1. Images are normalized and use the same intensity scale. Bars indicate 500 μm.

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