Abstract

Radiation from a linear accelerator induces Cherenkov emission in tissue, which has recently been shown to produce biochemical spectral signatures that can be interpreted to estimate tissue hemoglobin and oxygen saturation or molecular fluorescence from reporters. The Cherenkov optical light levels are in the range of 106 to 109W/cm2, which limits the practical utility of the signal in routine radiation therapy monitoring. However, due to the fact that the radiation is pulsed, gated-acquisition of the signal allows detection in the presence of ambient lighting, as is demonstrated here. This observation has the potential to significantly increase the value of Cherenkov emission spectroscopy during radiation therapy to monitor tissue molecular events.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Cherenkov, Phys. Rev. 52, 378 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, Opt. Lett. 35, 1109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Brody, E. R. Strupinsky, and L. R. Kline, Active Packaging for Food Applications (CRC Press, 2001), Chap. 3.
  12. P. Vaupel, A. Mayer, and M. Höckel in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, M. R. Nowrousian, eds. (Springer, 2008) pp. 265–282.
  13. S. M. Evans and C. J. Koch, Cancer Lett. 195, 1 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, Opt. Lett. 35, 1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. M. Evans and C. J. Koch, Cancer Lett. 195, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1937

P. A. Cherenkov, Phys. Rev. 52, 378 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Adam, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, J.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bentzen, S. M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boschi, F.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, D. L.

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brizel, D.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brody, L. A.

L. A. Brody, E. R. Strupinsky, and L. R. Kline, Active Packaging for Food Applications (CRC Press, 2001), Chap. 3.

Calderan, L.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, P. A.

P. A. Cherenkov, Phys. Rev. 52, 378 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, Opt. Lett. 35, 1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, R. A.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Ambrosio, D.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, S. E.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunst, J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S. M.

S. M. Evans and C. J. Koch, Cancer Lett. 195, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Germanos, M. S.

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gill, R. K.

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gladstone, D. J.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
[CrossRef]

Glaser, A. K.

J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J. J.

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, P.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Höckel, M.

P. Vaupel, A. Mayer, and M. Höckel in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, M. R. Nowrousian, eds. (Springer, 2008) pp. 265–282.

Holland, J. P.

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Honess, D. J.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, R. D.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kline, L. R.

L. A. Brody, E. R. Strupinsky, and L. R. Kline, Active Packaging for Food Applications (CRC Press, 2001), Chap. 3.

Koch, C. J.

S. M. Evans and C. J. Koch, Cancer Lett. 195, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lartigau, E.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. S.

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, Opt. Lett. 35, 1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Logue, J. P.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manfredi, M. G.

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marengo, M.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, A.

P. Vaupel, A. Mayer, and M. Höckel in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, M. R. Nowrousian, eds. (Springer, 2008) pp. 265–282.

Miao, Z.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G. S.

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, and S. R. Cherry, Opt. Lett. 35, 1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molls, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nordsmark, M.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Overgaard, J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
[CrossRef]

Ren, G.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, R

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, R.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudat, V.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, A.

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sbarbati, A.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silva, M. D.

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, A. E.

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, P.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Statford, I. J.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strupinsky, E. R.

L. A. Brody, E. R. Strupinsky, and L. R. Kline, Active Packaging for Food Applications (CRC Press, 2001), Chap. 3.

Tang, X.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Terris, D. J.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaupel, P.

P. Vaupel, A. Mayer, and M. Höckel in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, M. R. Nowrousian, eds. (Springer, 2008) pp. 265–282.

West, C. M.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Lett.

S. M. Evans and C. J. Koch, Cancer Lett. 195, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.

R. A. Cooper, C. M. West, J. P. Logue, S. E. Davidson, A. Miller, S. Roberts, I. J. Statford, D. J. Honess, and R. D. Hunter, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 45, 119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Med.

A. Ruggiero, J. P. Holland, J. S. Lewis, and J. J. Grimm, J. Nucl. Med. 51, 1123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R Robertson, M. S. Germanos, M. G. Manfredi, P. G Smith, and M. D. Silva, J. Nucl. Med. 52, 1764 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Med. Phys. 38 (7), 4127 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A

G. S. Mitchell, R. K. Gill, D. L. Boucher, C Li, and S. R. Cherry, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 369, 4605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. Robertson, M. S. Germanos, C. Li, G. S. Mitchell, S. R. Cherry, and M. D. Silva, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, N355 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Spinelli, D. D’Ambrosio, L. Calderan, M. Marengo, A. Sbarbati, and F. Boschi, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

P. A. Cherenkov, Phys. Rev. 52, 378 (1937).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE

H. Liu, G. Ren, Z. Miao, X. Zhang, X. Tang, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, PLoS ONE 5, e9470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radiother. Oncol.

M. Nordsmark, S. M. Bentzen, V. Rudat, D. Brizel, E. Lartigau, P. Stadler, A. Becker, M. Adam, M. Molls, J. Dunst, D. J. Terris, and J. Overgaard, Radiother. Oncol. 77, 18 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Axelsson, A. K. Glaser, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, Opt. Express20, 5133 (2012)..
[CrossRef]

L. A. Brody, E. R. Strupinsky, and L. R. Kline, Active Packaging for Food Applications (CRC Press, 2001), Chap. 3.

P. Vaupel, A. Mayer, and M. Höckel in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, M. R. Nowrousian, eds. (Springer, 2008) pp. 265–282.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The experimental setup is shown with the computer-controlled spectrometer CCD system located outside of the treatment room with Cherenkov light collected through a 13 m optical fiber. The trigger signal was obtained from the LINAC external control unit outside the room. (b) Schematic of Cherenkov emission in a phantom is illustrated. The radiation beam travels downward with a rectangular cross-section producing a column of Cherenkov emission below the surface. The optical fiber was placed on the phantom surface with the tip in the center of the beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The timeline of events for the ambient lights, output trigger, radiation beam output, and CCD shutter is shown. The periods of beam on and subsequent Cherenkov emission are shown in shaded blue.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The gated detection of Cherenkov emission with room lights on is shown with spectra acquired from a scattering phantom. The Cherenkov emission is obtained by calculating the difference between the gated signal and ambient lighting signal. (b) A photograph of the room with a corresponding image of Cherenkov emission from a human head phantom for radiation therapy are overlaid to illustrate the amount of ambient lighting present for all experiments.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The gated detection of Cherenkov emission in a tissue-simulating phantom is shown in with spectra of a phantom having no blood (black line), as well as oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (red and blue lines, respectively). Inset highlights the isosbestic region observed in the signal at the 550 to 600 nm spectral range.

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