Abstract

We here develop a method to measure and image the full optical scattering properties by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (ISOCT). Tissue is modelled as a medium with continuous refractive index (RI) fluctuation and such a fluctuation is described by the RI correlation functions. Under the first-order Born approximation, the forward model is established for ISOCT. By measuring optical quantities of tissue including the scattering power of the OCT spectrum, the reflection albedo α defined as the ratio of scattering coefficient μs, and the backscattering coefficient μb, we are able to inversely deduce the RI correlation function and image the full set of optical scattering properties.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

2009

2008

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2000

1990

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M.

Aalders, M. C. G.

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Boppart, S. A.

Bosschaart, N.

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Çapoglu, I. R.

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

Ding, H.

Faber, D.

Faber, D. J.

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Express 19, 6131 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Follen, M.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Kalkman, J.

Kodach, V. M.

Kowalczyk, A.

Leitgeb, R.

Liang, X.

Malpica, A.

Popescu, G.

Prahl, S.

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rogers, J. D.

Schmitt, J. M.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Taflove, A.

Tangella, K.

van der Meer, F.

van Leeuwen, T.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

V. M. Kodach, D. J. Faber, J. van Marle, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, Opt. Express 19, 6131 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Bosschaart, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and M. C. G. Aalders, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 030503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

Virmani, R.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Welch, A.

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the methodology. D is obtained from power law fitting to μb spectrum. lc is deduced by D and α according to Eq. (6).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) and (b) μb and μs spectrum with the sphere diameters and volume fraction (v.f.). (c) and (d) Calibration of μb and μs in various concentrations of 0.87 μm spheres. (e) D value phantom design with four types of spheres. The total spectrum is a power law within the illumination bandwidth. (f) Calibration of D. All the measurements were repeated three times. Error bar = S.E.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Map of g dependence on D and lc. (b)–(d) Conventional OCT, α and g image from a rat buccal sample. (1) Keratinized epithelium, (2) stratified squamous epithelium, and (3) submucosa. Bar=50μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Physical and Optical Properties ±S.E. of Different Rat Organs (710 nm)

Equations (7)

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Cn(ρ)=Nc·2(5D)/2(ρlc)(D3)/2K(D3)/2(ρlc),
σ(θ,ϕ)=2Nck4lc3Γ(D/2)(1sin2(θ)cos2(ϕ))π(1+[2klcsin(θ/2)]2)D/2,
μb=Nc8πΓ(D/2)k4lc3(1+[2klc]2)D/2.
μs=NcπΓ(D/23)2k2lc3[(1+(2k2lc2(D/22)1)×2k2lc2(D/23))(1+2k2lc2(D/2+1)+4k4lc4(43D/2+D2/4))(1+4k2lc2)1D/2].
μb23DNcπΓ(D/2)lc3Dk4D,(klc1)μs2NcπΓ(D/21)k2lc,(klc1&D>2);
αΓ(D/2)/Γ(D/21)(2klc)2D.
I2=rI02μb4πLexp(2znμs),

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