Abstract

A coupled optofluidic ring laser sensor is fabricated, and its ultrasensitive bulk refractive index and surface mass sensing properties are demonstrated. The sensor consists of a cylindrical ring laser and a thin-walled optofluidic capillary ring resonator. Coupling of the whispering gallery mode in the two resonators generates a largely magnified sensitivity due to the Vernier effect. A sensitivity of 2510nm/RIU and magnification factor of 355 are achieved experimentally in aqueous solution, which corresponds to a noise equivalent detection limit of 1.6×105RIU for bulk RI detection. The new sensor configuration provides a convenient way to achieve ultrasensitive biological and chemical sensing.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (4)

2010 (4)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 35, 898 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, W. Bofaerts, and P. Bienstman, Opt. Express 18, 22747 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 9139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Benyoucef, M.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardi, A.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bofaerts, W.

Claes, T.

Dale, P. S.

Dulashko, Y.

Fan, X.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nature Photon. 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 9139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Ovey, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 3189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 3189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, J.-J.

Huang, Y.

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Kiravittaya, S.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, M.

Liu, L.

Liu, L. Y.

Ovey, H.

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, A.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

Sarro, P. M.

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shang, L.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, Opt. Lett. 33, 1150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Songmuang, R.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 9139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Testa, G.

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thurmer, D. J.

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

X. W. Zhang, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nature Photon. 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 9139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Ovey, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 31, 1319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, N. M. Hanumegowda, and X. Fan, Opt. Lett. 30, 3189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wu, X.

Xu, L.

Zeni, L.

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. W.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 9139 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim Acta. (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, Anal. Chim Acta. 620, 8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, Analyst 133, 356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Bernardi, S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli, R. Songmuang, D. J. Thurmer, M. Benyoucef, and O. G. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 094106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Li and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Testa, Y. Huang, P. M. Sarro, L. Zeni, and R. Bernini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16612 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

X. Fan and I. M. White, Nature Photon. 5, 591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic configuration of the COFRL. (b) Photographs of a COFRL on a 1.5cm×1.0cm silicon substrate. Above inset of (b): the cross section of the capillary with wall thickness of 1 μm. Below inset of (b): the sensing region of the COFRL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Emission spectra of a COFRL with d10.9μm when glucose solution flows through the capillary. From bottom to top, the emission envelope moves to shorter wavelength when fluid refractive index increases. The arrow indicates the envelope shift. (b) A zoomed-in image of the emission spectrum in n=1.33375. The red curve is the Lorentzian fitting envelope. The Q factor of one resonant mode is approximately 7×103. (c) Fitted envelope center versus fluid refractive index. A linear fitting gives a sensitivity of 2510nm/RIU.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluctuation of the envelope center versus time for different refractive indices of the fluid.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Emission envelope moves to shorter wavelength when the HF flows through the capillary over time. (b) Fitted envelope center versus the decreasing thickness of capillary wall. The initial wall thickness is d2=1.2μm. A linear fitting gives a sensitivity of 0.15nm/nm.

Equations (1)

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FSRCORFLl,l=FSROFRRl×FSRACRRl|FSROFRRlFSRACRRl|,

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