Abstract

We demonstrate optical time-stretch confocal microscopy in the 1  μm spectral window for high-speed and high-resolution cellular imaging. In contrast to the prior demonstrations of time-stretch imaging, which all operated in the telecommunication band, the present work extends the utility of this imaging modality to a wavelength regime (∼1  μm), which is well known to be the optimal diagnostic window in biophotonics. This imaging technique enables us to image the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with cellular resolution (<2  μm), at a line scan rate of 10 MHz, and with a field of view as wide as ∼0.44  mm×0.1  mm. We also theoretically and experimentally characterized the system performance. As the low-loss dispersive fibers for the time-stretch process as well as other essential optical components for enhancing the imaging sensitivity are commonly available at 1  μm, time-stretch confocal microscopy in this wavelength range could usher in realizing high-speed cell imaging with an unprecedented throughput.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3387 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Pawley, ed., in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, Opt. Express 19, 15810 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. K. Y. Cheung, C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, Opt. Lett. 36, 160 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Basiji, D. A.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Boyraz, O.

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capewell, D.

Cheung, K. K. Y.

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, D.

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A. M.

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 18, 10016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossett, D. R.

Jalali, B.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 18, 10016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalyoncu, S. K.

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, L.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loken, M. R.

M. A. Owens and M. R. Loken, in Flow Cytometry Principles for Clinical Laboratory Practice: Quality Assurance for Quantitative Immunophenotyping (Wiley-Liss, 1994).

Lotan, R.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahjoubfar, A.

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fard, A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, D. R. Gossett, D. Di Carlo, and B. Jalali, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3387 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, P.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortyn, W. E.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Owens, M. A.

M. A. Owens and M. R. Loken, in Flow Cytometry Principles for Clinical Laboratory Practice: Quality Assurance for Quantitative Immunophenotyping (Wiley-Liss, 1994).

Qian, F.

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

Solli, D. R.

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Tien, E.-k.

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

C. Zhang, Y. Qiu, R. Zhu, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, Opt. Express 19, 15810 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Y. Cheung, C. Zhang, Y. Zhou, K. K. Y. Wong, and K. K. Tsia, Opt. Lett. 36, 160 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 18, 10016 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Venkatachalam, V.

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K. Y.

Zhang, C.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahjoubfar, K. Goda, A. Ayazi, A. Fard, S. H. Kim, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Drezek, T. Collier, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biomed. Opt. 7, 398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Lab. Med. (1)

D. A. Basiji, W. E. Ortyn, L. Liang, V. Venkatachalam, and P. Morrissey, Clin. Lab. Med. 27, 653 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Qian, Q. Song, E.-k. Tien, S. K. Kalyoncu, and O. Boyraz, Opt. Commun. 282, 4672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80, 043821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. A. Owens and M. R. Loken, in Flow Cytometry Principles for Clinical Laboratory Practice: Quality Assurance for Quantitative Immunophenotyping (Wiley-Liss, 1994).

J. B. Pawley, ed., in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).

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