Abstract

Endovascular optical coherence tomography (EV-OCT) is an emerging intravascular imaging technique for observing blood vessel walls. Fluctuating speckle noise, especially during rapid pull-back, can severely degrade the visibility of morphological structures. Moreover, the speckle pattern varies in different parts of the image due to beam divergence and is further complicated by interpolation through the coordinate transformation necessary for displaying the rotary scanning images, challenging the use of frequency domain analysis. In this study, a computationally efficient method using a generalized divergence regularization procedure is presented to suppress speckle noise in EV-OCT images. Results show substantial smoothing of the grainy appearance and enhanced visualization of deeper structures as demonstrated in porcine carotid arteries.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouman, and I. Jang, Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Mihoko and S. Eguchi, Neural Comput. 14, 1859 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 19, 1261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Bilenca, A.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bouman, B. E.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouman, and I. Jang, Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 19, 1261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, K. H. Y.

Desjardins, A. E.

Eguchi, S.

M. Mihoko and S. Eguchi, Neural Comput. 14, 1859 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts & Company, 2007).

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, I.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouman, and I. Jang, Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jarvi, M.

Jian, Z.

Jiang, J.

Khurana, M.

Ko, T. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. K. C.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leung, M. K. K.

Low, A. F.

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouman, and I. Jang, Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mariampillai, A.

Marks, D. L.

Marotta, T. R.

Mihoko, M.

M. Mihoko and S. Eguchi, Neural Comput. 14, 1859 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Montanera, W. J.

Moriyama, E. H.

Motaghiannezam, S. M. R.

Munce, N. R.

Oh, W. Y.

Ozcan, A.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puvanathasan, P.

Ralston, T. S.

Rao, B.

Rasmus, K.

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 19, 1261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spears, J.

Standish, B. A.

Sun, C.

Tearney, G. J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vitkin, A.

Vitkin, I. A.

Vuong, B.

Wilson, B. C.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yu, L.

Yu, Z.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (1)

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 19, 1261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 565 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. (1)

A. F. Low, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouman, and I. Jang, Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 3, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neural Comput. (1)

M. Mihoko and S. Eguchi, Neural Comput. 14, 1859 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts & Company, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Original finger skin image; (b) despeckled finger skin image. (*) indicates the stratus corneum, (#) indicates the dermis, and the red arrows point to the sweat glands.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Original porcine carotid artery EV-OCT image. The red ROI indicates the signal region and the yellow ROI indicates the noise region used in the metrics calculation. The green ROI indicates the zoomed region in Fig. 5. The three blue ROIS are used for ENL calculations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Despeckled porcine carotid artery EV-OCT image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Enlarged view of the red ROI in the original porcine arterial wall image; (b) enlarged view of the red signal ROI in the despeckled image processed by I-divergence algorithm; (c) enlarged view of the red signal ROI in the despeckled image processed by our proposed algorithm. The arrows indicate structures that are much less visible in the unprocessed image.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Enlarged view of the green ROI in the original image; (b) enlarged view of the green signal ROI in the despeckled image processed by I-divergence algorithm; (c) enlarged view of the green signal ROI in the despeckled image processed by our proposed algorithm. The red arrow indicates the clearer visualization of the external elastic lamina.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Trade-off between CNR and edge preservation by adjustment of β.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Metrics Comparison Between the Original Image and Processed Images Using Different β Values

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dβ(x,u)=1β(β1)[xβ+(β1)uββxuβ1],
x^=argxminyPx2+λi1β(β1)[xi2β+(β1)ui2ββxi2ui2(β1)],
x^i(n+1)=x^inε{2(P*PxP*y)i+λβ(β1)[2β|xi|2β12β|xi||ui|2(β1)]},

Metrics