Abstract

We present optitrode, a miniaturized flexible probe for integrated, localized light delivery and electrical recording. This device features an annular light guide with transparent polymer and fused silica layers surrounding a twisted-wire tetrode. We have developed a novel fabrication process, V-groove guided capillary assembly, to achieve high-precision, coaxial alignment of the various layers of the device. Optitrode with a length-to-diameter ratio 500 (5 cm long, 100 μm diameter) has been fabricated, and both the electrical and optical functions have been characterized. The prototype can deliver 11% (110 mW) of the total laser power under abrupt bending angle 25°.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).
  2. T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I.-J. Cho, H. W. Baac, and E. Yoon, in IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 995–998 (2010).
  8. S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).
  9. J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 491 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 8, 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

2007 (1)

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 491 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

Baac, H. W.

I.-J. Cho, H. W. Baac, and E. Yoon, in IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 995–998 (2010).

Bamberg, E.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbic, M.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bories, C.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyden, E. S.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brauner, M.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buzsaki, G.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I.-J.

I.-J. Cho, H. W. Baac, and E. Yoon, in IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 995–998 (2010).

Dani, J. A.

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

Dani, J.A.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

De Koninck, Y.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deisseroth, K.

K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 8, 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deschenes, M.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, S.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gheewala, M.

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

Gottschalk, A.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, C. M.

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

Kay, K.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavertu, G.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

LeChasseur, Y.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

Liewald, J. F.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-T.

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

Losonczy, A.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magee, J. C.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, P. E.

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

McDonald, J. C.

J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 491 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McNaughton, B.

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

Nagel, G.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Royer, S.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, W.-C.

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

Siapas, A.G.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

Vallee, R.

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-P.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watzke, N.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 491 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M.

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

Wolfe, J. C.

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

Wood, P. G.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, E.

I.-J. Cho, H. W. Baac, and E. Yoon, in IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 995–998 (2010).

Zemelman, B. V.

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

Zhou, F.-M.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res. 35, 491 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

S. Royer, B. V. Zemelman, M. Barbic, A. Losonczy, G. Buzsaki, and J. C. Magee, Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 2279 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Liang, A.G. Siapas, F.-M. Zhou, and J.A. Dani, J. Neurosci. 29, 4035 (2009).

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

C. M. Gray, P. E. Maldonado, M. Wilson, and B. McNaughton, J. Neurosci. Methods 63, 43 (1995).

Nat. Methods (3)

K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 8, 26 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. LeChasseur, S. Dufour, G. Lavertu, C. Bories, M. Deschenes, R. Vallee, and Y. De Koninck, Nat. Methods 8, 319 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, E. S. Boyden, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Methods 3, 785 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Zhang, L.-P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I.-J. Cho, H. W. Baac, and E. Yoon, in IEEE 23rd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 995–998 (2010).

S.-T. Lin, M. Gheewala, J. C. Wolfe, J. A. Dani, and W.-C. Shih, in 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), pp. 700–703 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Flexible optitrode; inset shows the cross-sectional view: tetrode (T), inner cladding (IC), core (C), and outer cladding (OC); (b) optitrode snaked through a tetrode micro-drive for studying free-moving rats.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

VGCA: (a) capillary; (b) fill capillary with PDMS; (c) curing on two-level V-groove; (d) cross-sectional view of VGCA; (e) remove polyimide by hot H2SO4; (f) etch silica by HF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Total intensity vs. propagation distance for various incidence angles for a single-PDMS layer on microwire (a) and for a PDMS-silica-PDMS composite layer on microwire (b); (c) intensity distribution averaged over the five incidence angles in (b); (d) intensity distribution after 5 cm propagation vs. incidence angle for the design in (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Right end of a 50 μm TWT is inside a PDMS-filled OD 150 μm capillary set in a deeper V-groove, and the left end of the TWT sits in a shallower V-groove; (b) completed optitrode with PDMS-Silica-PDMS layer surrounding a TWT; (c) probe tip image: dashed line shows the final cut position, 300μm to the left of the edge of the silica core marked by a white arrow; (d) TWT electrodes are circled in the cross-sectional view after cutting. Tip is facing left, and the arrows indicate the silica core edge.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a–b) Transmission at 0° and 25° bends; (c) transmission measurement 0° to 25°.

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