Abstract

Various staining techniques are commonly used in biomedical research to investigate cellular morphology. By inducing absorption of light, staining dyes change the intracellular refractive index due to the Kramers–Kronig relationship. We present a method for creating 2D maps of real and imaginary refractive indices of stained biological cells using their thickness and absorptance. We validate our technique on dyed polystyrene microspheres and quantify the alteration in refractive index of stained biological cells. We reveal that specific staining of individual organelles can increase their scattering cross-section by orders of magnitudes, implying a major impact in the field of biophotonics.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

S. Uttam, R. K. Bista, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. N. Boustany, S. A. Boppart, and V. Backman, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12, 285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (2)

1967 (1)

1954 (1)

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

1949 (1)

G. C. Crossmon, Stain Technol. 24, 241 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1927 (1)

H. A. Kramers, Atti del Congresso Internazionale dei Fisici 2, 545 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

Backman, V.

Beek, J. F.

Bista, R. K.

S. Uttam, R. K. Bista, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

N. N. Boustany, S. A. Boppart, and V. Backman, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12, 285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boustany, N. N.

N. N. Boustany, S. A. Boppart, and V. Backman, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12, 285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brand, R. E.

Capoglu, I. R.

Chayen, J.

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

Cibas, E. S.

E. S. Cibas and B. S. Ducatman, Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates (Saunders, 1996).

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook, in Cellular Pathology, 2nd ed. (Scion, 2006), pp. 67–104.

Cottrell, W. J.

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crossmon, G. C.

G. C. Crossmon, Stain Technol. 24, 241 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Davies, H. G.

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

De Robertis, E. D. P.

E. D. P. De Robertis, F. A. Saez, and E. M. F. De Robertis, Cell Biology, 6th ed. (Saunders, 1975).

De Robertis, E. M. F.

E. D. P. De Robertis, F. A. Saez, and E. M. F. De Robertis, Cell Biology, 6th ed. (Saunders, 1975).

Ducatman, B. S.

E. S. Cibas and B. S. Ducatman, Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates (Saunders, 1996).

Foster, T. H.

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, D. J.

S. Uttam, R. K. Bista, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hulst, H. C. v. d.

H. C. v. d. Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kramers, H. A.

H. A. Kramers, Atti del Congresso Internazionale dei Fisici 2, 545 (1927).
[CrossRef]

Kronig, R. d. L.

Kumar, G.

Lacour, L. F.

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

Liu, Y.

Lucarini, V.

V. Lucarini, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer, 2005).

Maetzler, C.

C. Maetzler, “MATLAB functions for Mie scattering and absorption,” Research Report 2002-08 (Bern, 2002).

Pickering, J. W.

Plass, G. N.

Pradhan, P.

Prahl, S. A.

Rogers, J. D.

Roy, H. K.

Saez, F. A.

E. D. P. De Robertis, F. A. Saez, and E. M. F. De Robertis, Cell Biology, 6th ed. (Saunders, 1975).

Schmitt, J. M.

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Subramanian, H.

Uttam, S.

S. Uttam, R. K. Bista, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vangemert, M. J. C.

Vanwieringen, N.

Welch, A. J.

Wilkins, M. H. F.

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

Wilson, J. D.

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

N. N. Boustany, S. A. Boppart, and V. Backman, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 12, 285 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Atti del Congresso Internazionale dei Fisici (1)

H. A. Kramers, Atti del Congresso Internazionale dei Fisici 2, 545 (1927).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Uttam, R. K. Bista, D. J. Hartman, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116013 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wilson, W. J. Cottrell, and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014010 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Q. J. Microsc. Sci. (1)

H. G. Davies, M. H. F. Wilkins, J. Chayen, and L. F. Lacour, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 95, 271 (1954).

Stain Technol. (1)

G. C. Crossmon, Stain Technol. 24, 241 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

C. Maetzler, “MATLAB functions for Mie scattering and absorption,” Research Report 2002-08 (Bern, 2002).

D. J. Cook, in Cellular Pathology, 2nd ed. (Scion, 2006), pp. 67–104.

E. D. P. De Robertis, F. A. Saez, and E. M. F. De Robertis, Cell Biology, 6th ed. (Saunders, 1975).

E. S. Cibas and B. S. Ducatman, Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates (Saunders, 1996).

V. Lucarini, Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials Research (Springer, 2005).

H. C. v. d. Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

S. A. Prahl, “Inverse adding-doubling software,” http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/index.html .

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