Abstract

The determination of endothelial cell density (ECD) is a crucial activity in eye banks for the assessment of corneal tissue quality. These cells are responsible for corneal transparency, and ECD correlates with graft survival. ECD is mainly assessed with a manual “naked-eye” procedure under a transmitted light microscope in Europe and using a specular microscope in the United States. Interbank and intrabank variability has been previously demonstrated. In order to facilitate training and continuing education of technicians and reliability assessment of eye banks’ ECD determination, we use micro-optics technologies to fabricate test mosaics that exactly reproduce the image of human corneal endothelium. The description of the fabrication process is detailed, and comparisons are made between amplitude and phase mosaics.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. European Eye Bank Association Directory, 19th ed.(European Eye Bank Association, 2011).
  4. Eye Bank Association of America. Medical Standards (European Eye Bank Association, 2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2009).

2008 (1)

E. Pels, H. Beele, and I. Claerhout, Int. Ophthalmol. 28, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. V. Patel, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139, 311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acquart, S.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beele, H.

E. Pels, H. Beele, and I. Claerhout, Int. Ophthalmol. 28, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourne, W. M.

S. V. Patel, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139, 311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brun, G.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campos-Guyotat, L.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Claerhout, I.

E. Pels, H. Beele, and I. Claerhout, Int. Ophthalmol. 28, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deb-Joardar, N.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doughty, M. J.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gain, P.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garraud, O.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D. O.

S. V. Patel, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139, 311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kress, B.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2009).

Le Petit, J. C.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manissolle, C.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maugery, J.

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyrueis, P.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2009).

Nishimura, J. K.

J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S. V.

S. V. Patel, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139, 311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pels, E.

E. Pels, H. Beele, and I. Claerhout, Int. Ophthalmol. 28, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peoc’h, M.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pons, D.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Racine, G. A.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thuret, G.

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. V. Patel, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139, 311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, J. C. Le Petit, J. Maugery, L. Campos-Guyotat, M. J. Doughty, and P. Gain, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 87, 1481 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Pels, H. Beele, and I. Claerhout, Int. Ophthalmol. 28, 155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

N. Deb-Joardar, G. Thuret, G. A. Racine, D. Pons, G. Brun, O. Parriaux, M. Peoc’h, S. Acquart, and P. Gain, Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 4373 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. K. Nishimura, D. O. Hodge, and W. M. Bourne, Ophthalmology 106, 1962 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Transplantation (1)

G. Thuret, C. Manissolle, S. Acquart, O. Garraud, L. Campos-Guyotat, J. Maugery, and P. Gain, Transplantation 78, 1299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-Optics to Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2009).

European Eye Bank Association Directory, 19th ed.(European Eye Bank Association, 2011).

Eye Bank Association of America. Medical Standards (European Eye Bank Association, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of endothelial mosaic of a human cornea. (a) Usual transmitted light microscopy (bright field) after osmotic dilation of intercellular spaces in eye banks. Note that corneal curvature and endothelial folds create a three-dimensional surface that hinders the image from being entirely focused. (b) Light microscopy after Alizarin Red staining that reveals cell borders. In this experimental staining, the cornea can be flat mounted to avoid defocusing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Vector fracture of binary black and white file into optimized GDS2 file.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude component developed from a real human corneal endothelial image It can be visualized by transmitted light and SMs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase component observed under phase contrast microscopy, useful for several eye banks that use this observation method.

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