Abstract

A significant advancement of cw lasing in Cr4+:Y3Al5O12 (Cr4+:YAG) double-clad crystal fiber grown by the codrawing laser-heated pedestal growth technique was demonstrated at RT. The optical-to-optical slope efficiency of 33.9% is the highest, to the best of our knowledge, among all Cr4+:YAG lasers, whether they are in bulk or fiber forms. The low-threshold lasing of 78.2mW and high efficiency are in good agreement with the simulation. The keys to the high laser efficiency are twofold: one is the improved Cr4+ emission cross section and fluorescence lifetime due to release of the strain on the distorted Cr4+ tetrahedron, which also mitigates photobleaching in Cr4+:YAG; the other is the improved core uniformity at long fiber lengths. In addition, because of the low threshold, the impact of excited state absorption of the pump light is significantly reduced. The effects of crystal-orientation, self-selected, and pump-dependent linear polarization states were also addressed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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Hömmerich, U.

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[CrossRef]

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Hsu, P. K.

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Huang, S. L.

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[CrossRef]

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Ji, K. D.

Jia, W.

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[CrossRef]

Lo, C. Y.

Moulton, P. F.

Mukhin, I.

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I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and A. G. Okhrimchuk, Proc. SPIE 4350, 99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, and A. V. Shestakov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1578 (1999).
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Okhrimchuk, A. G.

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D. J. Richardson, Science 330, 327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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I. Shoji and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048 (2002).
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Sorokin, E.

I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and A. G. Okhrimchuk, Proc. SPIE 4350, 99 (2001).
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I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, and A. V. Shestakov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and A. G. Okhrimchuk, Proc. SPIE 4350, 99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, and A. V. Shestakov, Opt. Lett. 24, 1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, E.

Taira, T.

I. Shoji and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

Tsai, H. J.

Tu, S. Y.

Wamsley, P. R.

P. R. Wamsley and K. L. Bray, J. Lumin. 59, 11 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Chi, H. Yang, S. Liu, M. Li, L. Wang, and G. Zou, High Press. Res. 3, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. T.

Welford, D.

Wintner, E.

Yang, H.

Y. Chi, H. Yang, S. Liu, M. Li, L. Wang, and G. Zou, High Press. Res. 3, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P. S.

Yen, W. M.

H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15505 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, W. J.

Zou, G.

Y. Chi, H. Yang, S. Liu, M. Li, L. Wang, and G. Zou, High Press. Res. 3, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Shoji and T. Taira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3048 (2002).
[CrossRef]

High Press. Res. (1)

Y. Chi, H. Yang, S. Liu, M. Li, L. Wang, and G. Zou, High Press. Res. 3, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

P. R. Wamsley and K. L. Bray, J. Lumin. 59, 11 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Nat. Photon. (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photon. 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15505 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. T. Sorokina, S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and A. G. Okhrimchuk, Proc. SPIE 4350, 99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Richardson, Science 330, 327 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparative strain analysis of two packaged Cr 4 + : YAG DCFs. One was by a high heat load approach using Cu–Al alloy [(a) and (c)], another one used just silver gel [(b) and (d)]. (a) and (b) are the Cr 3 + fluorescence intensity mappings of the two DCFs excited by a 532 nm laser. (c) and (d) are the corresponding R 1 line maps in (a) and (b) in combination with the 111 -YAG hexagonal structure model and line-scanned strain fields in (e) and (f), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the cw RT Cr 4 + : YAG DCF laser experiment. FL, focusing lens; LPF, long-wavelength-pass filter; BS, beam splitter; PD, photodetector; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cr 4 + : YAG DCF laser output power against the incident pump power achieved at RT. Upper inset, the corresponding lasing spectrum at the maximum incident pump power of 360 mW , showing a high side-mode suppression ratio of 70 dB . Lower inset, stability of the Cr 4 + : YAG DCF laser measured every 100 ms without active cooling at RT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization measurement of the cw RT Cr 4 + : YAG DCF laser at various incident pump powers. The output powers are normalized to that of the 280 mW pump at 0 ° .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Power Budget Above Threshold for the Cr 4 + : YAG DCF Laser

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