Abstract

We applied for the first time, to our knowledge, broadband off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (BB-OB-QEPAS) to trace NO2 detection using a broadband blue laser diode centered at 450nm. A detection limit of 18ppbv (parts in 109 by volume) for NO2 in N2 at atmospheric pressure was achieved with an average laser power of 7mW at a 1s integration time, which corresponds to a 1σ normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 4.1×109cm1W/Hz1/2. An Allan variance analysis was performed to investigate the long-term stability of the BB-OB-QEPAS-based NO2 sensor.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1982

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alkman, J. K.

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angus, A. M.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Atklnson, G. H.

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colles, M. J.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elia, A.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Franco, C. D.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Harshbarger, W. R.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugarà, P. M.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marinero, E. E.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Peuriot, A. L.

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polzay, O.

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robin, M. B.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, G.

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slezak, V.

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vankesteren, H. W.

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the developed BB-OB- QEPAS-based NO 2 sensor. Lens 1, f = 3 mm ; Lens 2, f = 75 mm ; Lens 3, f = 35 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Blue LD Emission spectrum (blue) centered at 450.11 nm and the absorption spectrum of NO 2 in the 350 600 nm wavelength range (red). (b) Measured LD emission profile (blue) associated with a Gauss profile fit (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear dependence of the background-corrected PA signal upon the NO 2 concentration. The inset shows the PA signal at different NO 2 concentrations below 1.5 ppmv .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PA signal at different NO 2 concentrations and the background noise level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allan deviation plots for time series measurements of pure N 2 (blue) and 321 ppbv NO 2 in N 2 (red) associated with a t 1 / 2 slope (dashed line).

Equations (2)

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NNEA = α min P 0 Δ f = N σ ( λ ) P 0 SNR Δ f ,
σ ( λ ) P 0 = i = 1 n σ ( λ i ) P 0 g ( λ i ) = P 0 i = 1 n σ ( λ i ) g ( λ i ) ,

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