Abstract

A reflective light-scattering (RLS) microscope with structured illumination (SI) provides subdiffraction resolution and improves the image quality of gold nanoparticles in biological systems. The three-dimensional (3D)-structured pattern is rapidly and precisely controlled with a spatial light modulator and scrambled at the conjugate image plane to increase spatial incoherence. The reconstructed SI-RLS image of 100nm gold nanoparticles reveals lateral and axial resolutions of approximately 117 and 428nm. We present a high-resolution image of gold nanoparticles inside a HeLa cell, with improved contrast.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, C.-H. Chang, Y.-C. Lan, and H.-C. Chui, Opt. Express 18, 165 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. R. Beversluis, G. W. Bryant, and S. J. Stranick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1371 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, P. A. Sims, and X. S. Xie, Chem. Phys. Chem. 9, 707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hein, K. I. Willig, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 14271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 6.

Agard, D. A.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asahi, T.

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

Bryant, G. W.

Cande, W. Z.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cariton, P. M.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

Chhun, B. B.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, H.-C.

Gil, P. R.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubovskaya, I. N.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 6.

Griffis, E. R.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, B.

B. Hein, K. I. Willig, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 14271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

B. Hein, K. I. Willig, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 14271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-H.

Iino, R.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kner, P.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, Y.-C.

Lin, H.-Y.

Louit, G.

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, P. A. Sims, and X. S. Xie, Chem. Phys. Chem. 9, 707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, S.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noji, H.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parak, W.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakakihara, S.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedat, J. W.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sims, P. A.

X. Nan, P. A. Sims, and X. S. Xie, Chem. Phys. Chem. 9, 707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperling, R. A.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stranick, S. J.

Tabata, K. V.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, G.

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, H.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uwada, T.

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. J. R.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willig, K. I.

B. Hein, K. I. Willig, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 14271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winoto, L.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

X. Nan, P. A. Sims, and X. S. Xie, Chem. Phys. Chem. 9, 707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagida, T.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanekka, M.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

H. Ueno, S. Nishikawa, R. Iino, K. V. Tabata, S. Sakakihara, T. Yanagida, and H. Noji, Biophys. J. 98, 2014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Cariton, C. J. R. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, Biophys. J. 94, 4957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Chem.

X. Nan, P. A. Sims, and X. S. Xie, Chem. Phys. Chem. 9, 707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

R. A. Sperling, P. R. Gil, F. Zhang, M. Zanekka, and W. Parak, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 1896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. C

G. Louit, T. Asahi, G. Tanaka, T. Uwada, and H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 11766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 6, 339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

B. Hein, K. I. Willig, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 14271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science 319, 810 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SI-RLS microscope. (Inset) Two SLM patterns designed to generate 0 ° and 45 ° illumination patterns.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Projections of wide-field images of 100 nm gold nanoparticles on scrambling at locations (a) S1 and (b) S2. Each stack contains 31 images taken at z-step of 100 nm ; the upper and lower parts represent the lateral ( x y ) and axial ( x z ) projections, respectively. The axial extents of the 3D-structured patterns are shown with scrambling at (c) S1 and (d) S2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Projections of 100 nm gold nanoparticles from (a) wide-field and (b) SI-RLS images in stacks. (c) Lateral and axial profiles of a single gold nanoparticle, with a Gaussian fit. Each stack contains 31 images taken at z-step of 100 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) DIC image of an internalized cell. 3D-view of (b) wide-field and (c) SI-RLS images of 100 nm gold nanoparticles within the red box. The stack in (b) and (c) contains 51 images taken at z-step of 100 nm with an image size of 7.7 × 7.7 μm 2 .

Equations (2)

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U i ( x , y , t ) = U g ( x , y , t ) h ( x , y ) = [ S ( x , y ) · E ( x , y ) · e i ϕ ( t ) ] h ( x , y ) ,
I i ( x , y ) = | U i ( x , y , t ) | 2 = [ S ( x , y ) | E ( x , y ) | 2 ] | h ( x , y ) | 2 .

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