Abstract

In the practice of near-field scanning probe microscopy, it is typically assumed that the distance regulation is independent of the optical signal. However, we demonstrate that these two signals are entangled due to the inherent action of optically induced force. This coupling leads to artifacts in both estimating the magnitude of optical fields and recording topographic maps.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Giessibl and H. Bielefeldt, Phys. Rev. B 61, 9968 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2000

F. Giessibl and H. Bielefeldt, Phys. Rev. B 61, 9968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

F. Giessibl and H. Bielefeldt, Phys. Rev. B 61, 9968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonakdar, A.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S. K.

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.-D.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dey, D.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Dickenson, N. E.

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. C.

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, E. S.

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, T.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z.-Z.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gelfand, R.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Giessibl, F.

F. Giessibl and H. Bielefeldt, Phys. Rev. B 61, 9968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.-S.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohlgraf-Owens, D. C.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, J.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Labardi, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, Ch.

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsushige, K.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Memis, O. G.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Mooren, O. L.

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patané, S.

M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, N.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sklar, A.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, S.

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valle, P. J.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weston, K. D.

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.-T.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Labardi, S. Patané, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Satoh, T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, K. Matsushige, and H. Yamada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 233104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 325 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J.-J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Kohoutek, D. Dey, A. Bonakdar, R. Gelfand, A. Sklar, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, Nano Lett. 11, 3378(2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

X. Zhu, G.-S. Huang, H.-T. Zhou, X. Yan, Z. Wang, Y. Ling, Y.-D. Dai, and Z.-Z. Gan, Opt. Rev. 4, 236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, Phys. Rev. A 84, 011807(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

F. Giessibl and H. Bielefeldt, Phys. Rev. B 61, 9968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

N. E. Dickenson, E. S. Erickson, O. L. Mooren, and R. C. Dunn, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 053712 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

“Real” surface topography (dashed–dotted curve) of Au film deposited on quartz that has been annealed to open up pits in the coating. The solid curve is the difference between topographies recorded with and without illumination. The dashed curve is the difference between two scans of the real topography performed before and after illumination. Because of optical force, the tip is pushed 20nm away at the edge of the Au film.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of the OIF on a nanostructured GaP sample measured with an uncoated NSOM tip. (a) Optically induced topographies, δz1=zonzoff1, and (b) control difference δz2=zoff2zoff1 overlaid on the “real” topography, zoff1. Note that the largest artifacts induced by optical forces are located at the edges where the local field strength is the highest.

Metrics