Abstract

We developed an optical-fiber-based photomechanical gene transfer system for endoscopic or catheter-based application. A fiber tip with a laser-absorbing film covered with a transparent plastic disk for plasma confinement was attached to a quartz fiber; the film was irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses transmitted through the fiber to generate photomechanical waves (PMWs). Characteristics of PMWs emitted from the fiber tip were examined to confirm the necessary conditions for gene transfer. We then attempted to transfer reporter genes to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo with the fiber system, and the results showed significantly high protein levels and spatially selective pinpoint gene expressions in the tissue.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

A. G. Doukas, D. J. McAuliffe, and T. J. Flotte, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

Aizawa, K.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, H.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashok, P. C.

Ballard, P.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Devaux, D.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dholaika, K.

Dholakia, K.

Doukas, A. G.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. McAuliffe, and T. J. Flotte, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, S.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fabbro, R.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

Flotte, T. J.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. McAuliffe, and T. J. Flotte, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, J.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gunn-Moore, F.

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

Ikawa, Y.

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, H.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanda, Y.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, Y.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasuya, T.

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotani, H.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurata, S.

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ma, N.

Masaki, Y.

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAuliffe, D. J.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. McAuliffe, and T. J. Flotte, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, K.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, R.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, T.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, H.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nawashiro, H.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, T.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomiya, Y.

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogura, M.

Okano, H.

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ooigawa, H.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riches, A.

Saitoh, D.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satoh, Y.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Stevenson, D.

Stevenson, D. J.

Suzuki, N.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, S.

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takishima, K.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terakawa, M.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tirlapur, U. K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsampoula, X.

Tsuda, H.

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsukakoshi, M.

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Uenoyama, M.

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Terakawa, M. Ogura, S. Sato, H. Wakisaka, H. Ashida, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, Opt. Lett. 29, 1227(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmont, J.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wakisaka, H.

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Tsukakoshi, S. Kurata, Y. Nomiya, Y. Ikawa, and T. Kasuya, Appl. Phys. B 35, 135 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

S. Takano, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, H. Ashida, H. Okano, and M. Obara, Appl. Phys. Express 1, 038001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

T. Ando, S. Sato, S. Takano, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 9898 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Fabbro, J. Fournier, P. Ballard, D. Devaux, and J. Virmont, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Terakawa, S. Sato, H. Ashida, K. Aizawa, M. Uenoyama, Y. Masaki, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014026 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Satoh, Y. Kanda, M. Terakawa, M. Obara, K. Mizuno, Y. Watanabe, S. Endo, H. Ooigawa, H. Nawashiro, S. Sato, and K. Takishima, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Aizawa, S. Sato, M. Terakawa, D. Saitoh, H. Tsuda, H. Ashida, and M. Obara, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064043 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Ther.

Y. Kaneda, T. Nakajima, T. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Ikegami, N. Suzuki, H. Nakamura, R. Morishita, and H. Kotani, Mol. Ther. 6, 219 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

U. K. Tirlapur and K. König, Nature 418, 290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

A. G. Doukas, D. J. McAuliffe, and T. J. Flotte, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19, 137 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram and (b) photograph of the fiber tip for photomechanical gene transfer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical characteristics of PMWs emitted from the fiber tip with a laser fluence of 1.0 J / cm 2 at the fiber output end. (a) Temporal pressure profiles of the PMWs generated by ten successive laser pulse irradiations, (b) shadowgraph of a PMW propagating in water at 3 μs after laser irradiation. The arrow and arrowhead indicate a shock front of the PMW and a wavefront of the PMW reflected at the PET surface, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of transfer of reporter genes (pLuc and pEGFP) to rat skin in vivo with the fiber tip. (a) Luc protein levels in the tissue at 24 h after treatment under three different conditions: plasmid injection alone, one session of PMWs, and three sessions of PMWs. Values are expressed as means + standard deviation ( n = 8 ). A significantly higher protein level was obtained by applying three sessions of PMWs (** P < 0.01 ; nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Scheffe’s post hoc test). (b) Distribution of EGFP gene expression at 24 h after application of three sessions of PMWs. After plasmid injection, PMWs were applied to two sites with the fiber tip. Correspondingly, two EGFP fluorescence spots were observed (arrowheads).

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