Abstract

Limited-projection fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can greatly reduce the acquisition time, which is suitable for resolving fast biology processes in vivo but suffers from severe ill-posedness because of the reconstruction using only limited projections. To overcome the severe ill-posedness, we report a reconstruction method based on the projected restarted conjugate gradient normal residual. The reconstruction results of two phantom experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible for limited-projection FMT.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Luker and K. Luker, J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Rudin and R. Weissleder, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 123(2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545(2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Deliolanis, T. Lasser, D. Hyde, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 32, 382 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. F. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 17, 21376(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. F. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 17, 21376(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Rudin and R. Weissleder, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 123(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aikawa, E.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 17, 21376(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakhos, T.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvetti, D. G.

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deliolanis, N.

Deliolanis, N. C.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunham, J.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueiredo, J. L.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyde, D.

Kirsch, D. G.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleine, R. H. D.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landi, G.

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 17, 21376(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luker, G.

G. Luker and K. Luker, J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luker, K.

G. Luker and K. Luker, J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massoud, T. F.

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niedre, M. J.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Deliolanis, T. Lasser, D. Hyde, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 32, 382 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, L.

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, J.

N. Deliolanis, T. Lasser, D. Hyde, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, Opt. Lett. 32, 382 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudin, M.

M. Rudin and R. Weissleder, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 123(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sgallari, F.

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soubret, A.

Wang, D. F.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 17, 21376(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rudin and R. Weissleder, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 123(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurdinger, T.

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. F. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Mol. Med. (1)

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genes Dev. (1)

T. F. Massoud and S. S. Gambhir, Genes Dev. 17, 545(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl. (1)

D. G. Calvetti, G. Landi, L. Reichel, and F. Sgallari, Inverse Probl. 20, 1747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. C. Deliolanis, J. Dunham, T. Wurdinger, J. L. Figueiredo, T. Bakhos, and V. Ntziachristos, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030509(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med. (1)

G. Luker and K. Luker, J. Nucl. Med. 49, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

M. Rudin and R. Weissleder, Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2, 123(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. J. Niedre, R. H. D. Kleine, E. Aikawa, D. G. Kirsch, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19126 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of free-space full-angle FMT system. (a) Front view. (b) Vertical view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstruction results of the first experiment. (a) 3D rendering of true fluorescent targets. (b) Section of true fluorescent targets. (c)–(g) Sections of different projections. All images are normalized by the maximum of the reconstructed results and then displayed on the same color scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction results of the second experiment. (a) 3D rendering of true fluorescent targets. (b) Section of true fluorescent target at the height of 4.2 cm . (h) Section of true fluorescent target at the height of 2.4 cm . (c)–(g) Sections at the height of 4.2 cm for different projections. (i)–(m) Sections at the height of 2.4 cm for different projections. All images are normalized by the maximum of the reconstructed results and then displayed on the same color scale.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ fl ( r d , r s ) = ν S 0 D λ fl G ( r d , r ) x ( r ) G ( r s , r ) d 3 r ,
G ( { r l } , r ) = G ( r l , r ) d r l ,
Φ fl = W x ,
W ξ k = r k ,
x k + 1 = ( x k + ξ k ) + ,
( ( s ) + ) i = max { s i , 0 } , 1 i n , s R n .

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