Abstract

We report experimental evidence of correlation-induced spectral changes in biological tissues. The overall spectral shift in our transmission measurements is to the red and the mean wavelength of the original spectrum is up 10% larger. These results indicate that the spectral changes due to elastic scattering are significant and likely to hinder all spectroscopic measurements based on the inelastic (i.e., emission and absorption) interaction between light and tissues. Thus, simultaneous morphology and spectral measurements are required for accurate measurements spectroscopic information.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

M. F. Bocko, D. H. Douglass, and R. S. Knox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2649 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Wolf, Nature 326, 363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1370 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocko, M. F.

M. F. Bocko, D. H. Douglass, and R. S. Knox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2649 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Ding, H. F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

Douglass, D. H.

M. F. Bocko, D. H. Douglass, and R. S. Knox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2649 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foley, J. T.

Gao, W.

Gao, W. R.

W. R. Gao, J. Biomed. Opt. 15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Gori, F.

Hunter, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, R. S.

M. F. Bocko, D. H. Douglass, and R. S. Knox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2649 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

Nguyen, F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Opt. Lett. 36, 2281 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Opt. Express 19, 1016 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, Opt. Lett. 36, 1215(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, G.

G. Srinivasan, Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging for Biomedical Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010).

Stoner, G. D.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Venkatesh, G.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wax, A.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. R. Gao, J. Biomed. Opt. 15 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (1)

E. Wolf, Nature 326, 363 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, G. Venkatesh, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1370 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Bocko, D. H. Douglass, and R. S. Knox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2649 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. Srinivasan, Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging for Biomedical Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Quantitative phase image of a 4 μm thick core biopsy. The inset shows the zoomed-in version of the boxed area. Color bar indicates phase shift in red. b) Experimental geometry for light scattering by thin tissue slice: k i , k s , q, are the incident wavevector, scattered wavevector and momentum transfer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum versus angle for light scattered by the tissue shown in Fig. 1a. At small angles, the original Gaussian spectrum is shown. (b) The relative change of the mean frequency; negative values indicate red shifts. The inset shows the spectrum versus angle in the absence of spatial correlations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectrum versus scattering angle for (a) deoxy-hemoglobin and (b) oxy-hemoglobin. (c) The relative shift in mean frequency for the Gaussian, Hb, and HbO 2 , as indicated.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 U ( r , ω ) + k 0 2 U ( r , ω ) = k 0 2 χ ( r ) U ( r , ω ) .
2 U ( r , ω ) + k 0 2 U ( r , ω ) = k 0 2 χ ( x , y ) δ ( z ) A ( ω ) e i k 0 z .
U ˜ ( k , ω ) = k 0 2 k 2 k 0 2 A ( ω ) χ ˜ ( k k i ) ,
U ˜ ( k , ω ) = k 0 2 2 Q ( 1 Q k z + 1 Q + k z ) A ( ω ) χ ˜ ( k ) .
U ˜ ( k , z , ω ) = k 0 2 2 A ( ω ) χ ˜ ( k ) ( e i Q · z Q + e i Q · z Q ) .
U ˜ ( k , z , ω ) = k 0 2 2 A ( ω ) χ ˜ ( k ) ( e i Q · z Q ) .
S ( θ , ω ) = ( k 0 2 cos θ ) 2 χ ˜ 2 ( k ) S i ( ω ) | k 0 = ω / c ,

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