Abstract

We extend classical light ghost imaging to the area of fluorescence imaging and propose a new fluorescence imaging method. For the first time, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that fluorescence ghost imaging can be realized with pseudothermal light. Important factors influencing the visibility and resolution of the images are discussed to improve the quality of the fluorescence ghost imaging. We hope that this work may pave the road for ghost imaging to biomedical applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, Opt. Express 16, 16189 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Gong and S. Han, Opt. Lett. 36, 394 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).
  14. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).
  15. W. Gong and S. Han, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 675 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Cai and S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gong and S. Han, Opt. Lett. 36, 394 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

W. Gong and S. Han, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, Opt. Express 16, 16189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y. Cai and S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).

1995 (1)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Bache, M.

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berardi, V.

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromberg, Y.

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai and S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deacon, K. S.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, W.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Gu, M.

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

W. Gong and S. Han, Opt. Lett. 36, 394 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gong and S. Han, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 675 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, A. L.

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magatti, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyers, R.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, R. E.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, T.

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, Opt. Express 16, 16189 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergienko, A. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y.

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y. H.

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zhu, S.-Y.

Y. Cai and S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Scarcelli, V. Berardi, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Shen, Y. Bai, T. Qin, and S. Han, Chin. Phys. Lett. 253968 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Gatti, M. Bache, D. Magatti, E. Brambilla, F. Ferri, and A. L. Lugiato, J. Mod. Opt. 53739 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 79, 053840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and Y. H. Shih, Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Y. Cai and S.-Y. Zhu, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, L. A. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 253603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cheng and S. Han, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. A. Lugiato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D’Angelo, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Principles of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Confocal Microscopes (World Scientific, 1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw Hill, 1996).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for lensless FGI. (b) Image formation for FGI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The image of sample “CBMP” observed by a confocal microscope (Olympus FV1000). (b) Fluorescence ghost image of the sample from 10,000 measurements. (c) Same as (b) but using 20,000 realizations. Scale bars, 300 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence GI of a double slit with different speckle size on the sample plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ghost images of single slit with different slit width b.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I o ( x 0 ) = X E * ( x ) E ( x ) h 11 * ( x , x o ) h 11 ( x , x o ) d x d x .
I o ( x 0 ) = I ( x 0 ) O ( x 0 ) .
I 1 ( x 1 ) = X 0 I 0 ( x 0 ) | h 12 ( x 0 , x 1 ) | 2 d x 0 .
I 2 ( x 2 ) = X E * ( x ) E ( x ) h 2 * ( x , x 2 ) h 2 ( x , x 2 ) d x d x .
Δ G ( 2 , 2 ) ( x 1 , x 2 ) = < I ( x 1 ) I ( x 2 ) > < I 1 ( x 1 ) > < I 2 ( x 2 ) > = I 0 2 O ( x 0 ) | X h 2 * ( x , x 2 ) h 11 ( x , x 1 ) d x | 2 | h 12 ( x 0 , x 1 ) | 2 d x 0 .
Δ G ( 2 , 2 ) O ( x 0 ) | sinc { D λ ( x 0 d 1 x 2 d ) } | 2 d x 0 O ( d 1 d x 2 ) .

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