Abstract

A multimode fiber (MMF) was used for both delivery of excitation lasers and collection of returned coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in a CARS microendoscopy prototype imaging system. We demonstrated a polarization-based scheme for suppression of four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in delivery fibers. Our experimental results showed that this polarization-based FWM-suppressing scheme can dramatically reduce FWM signals generated in MMFs, and MMFs can be used to produce CARS images in this microendoscopy system. The proposed MMF-based CARS microendoscopy imaging system with the polarization-based FWM-suppressing scheme offers a potential platform for building fiber-based CARS microendoscopes that can effectively suppress FWM background noises.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011

2010

2008

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

A. Volkmer, J. Phys. D 38, R59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

1992

K. Inoue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 883 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balu, M.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gao, L.

Hammoudi, A. A.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 883 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Legare, F.

Li, F.

Liu, G.

Luo, P.

Palapattu, G. S.

Potma, E. O.

Roy, R.

Thrall, M. J.

Tromberg, B. J.

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, J. Phys. D 38, R59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wong, K. K.

Wong, S. T. C.

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Legare, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Express 14, 4427 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Zhou, H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of our CARS microendoscopy prototype system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization state paths (red stars) of (a)  817 nm and (b)  1064 nm on the Poincaré sphere traced at the output of 1 m SMF28 as the linear polarizer at the input of SMF28 was rotated. Equators represent linear polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWM spectra as a function of the relative angle between the linear polarization orientation of the pump and that of the Stokes. Inset is the corresponding intensity variation at an FWM peak of 661.3 nm from 0 ° to 180 ° .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CARS images of 10 μm PEBs: (a) parallel-polarized pump and Stokes beams without the DWW insertion, (b) orthogonal-polarized pump and Stokes without the DWW insertion, and (c) orthogonal-polarized pump and Stokes with the DWW insertion. (d) Intensity profiles along vertical green lines in (a)–(c). (e) CARS spectrum of PEBs at pump ( 800 826 nm ) and Stokes ( 1064 nm ). (f) Mouse skin tissue. Scale bar is 10 μm .

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