Abstract

In this Letter, we report for the first time (to our knowledge) in-vivo volumetric optical coherence microscopy images of skin epidermal cells. We achieved micrometer-class resolution, 2μm laterally and axially, with an acquisition speed of 23K A-scans/s and over 90dB sensitivity to a depth of 1mm by employing a custom, liquid-lens-based, dynamic-focusing objective, a broadband light source, and a custom, astigmatism-corrected Czerny–Turner spectrometer with a high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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M. Akiba and K. Chan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

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S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 72, 2405 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Aguirre, A.

Akcay, A.

Akiba, M.

M. Akiba and K. Chan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alex, A.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R.

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, S.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

Chan, K.

M. Akiba and K. Chan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Clarkson, E.

Cuevas, J.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delemos, T.

Drexler, W.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Glittenberg, C.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldgeier, M.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, S.

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gratton, E.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 72, 2405 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, B.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.

Huzaira, M.

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Jaen, P.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

Kuhn, W.

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 72, 2405 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meemon, P.

Murali, S.

Nori, S.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, G.

Popov, S.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rius, F.

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rius-D´iaz, F.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, J. P.

Sampson, D.

Smith, E.

So, P. T. C.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 72, 2405 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Swanson, E.

Thompson, K. P.

Torres, A.

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zvyagin, A.

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, Biophys. J. 72, 2405 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nori, F. Rius-D´ıaz, J. Cuevas, M. Goldgeier, P. Jaen, A. Torres, and S. Gonzalez, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 51, 923 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. Alex, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, S. Popov, C. Glittenberg, S. Binder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 026025 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Akiba and K. Chan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huzaira, F. Rius, M. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and S. González, J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 846 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the micrometer-class axial and lateral resolution GD-OCM system with high acquisition speed (b) custom dynamic-focusing microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity roll-off measured as a function of depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A volume ( 300 μm × 200 μm × 400 μm ) of in-vivo human finger skin, (b)–(i) en face images every 12 μm in depth in viable epidermis, (j)–(k) volumetric images cut at the depth of (b), and (g) respectively, and (l) a half cut of volume (j) along a blue dash line. EPI, epidermis, SC, stratum corneum, and PD, papillary.

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