Abstract

A method is proposed to measure transverse blood flow by using photoacoustic Doppler broadening of bandwidth. By measuring bovine blood flowing through a plastic tube, the linear dependence of the broadening on the flow speed was validated. The blood flow of the microvasculature in a mouse ear and a chicken embryo (stage 16) was also studied.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. C. Li, S. W. Huang, C. W. Wei, Y. C. Chiou, C. D. Chen, and C. R. C. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 3341 (2005).
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  3. H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Fang and L. H. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 671 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Hu and E. B. Clark, Circ. Res. 65, 1665 (1989).
    [PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang and L. H. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 671 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

1989 (1)

N. Hu and E. B. Clark, Circ. Res. 65, 1665 (1989).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. Chihiro, H. Akimitsu, and N. Kouroku, Syst. Comput. Japan 19, 13 (1988).

1987 (1)

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimitsu, H.

K. Chihiro, H. Akimitsu, and N. Kouroku, Syst. Comput. Japan 19, 13 (1988).

Censor, D.

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. D.

Chihiro, K.

K. Chihiro, H. Akimitsu, and N. Kouroku, Syst. Comput. Japan 19, 13 (1988).

Chiou, Y. C.

Cisneros, J. A.

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, E. B.

N. Hu and E. B. Clark, Circ. Res. 65, 1665 (1989).
[PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang and L. H. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 34, 671 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, N.

N. Hu and E. B. Clark, Circ. Res. 65, 1665 (1989).
[PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Kouroku, N.

K. Chihiro, H. Akimitsu, and N. Kouroku, Syst. Comput. Japan 19, 13 (1988).

Li, P. C.

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, V. L.

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsytsarev, V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vontz, T.

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. R. C.

Wang, L. H. V.

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. W.

Zhang, H. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Fang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 264103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Circ. Res. (1)

N. Hu and E. B. Clark, Circ. Res. 65, 1665 (1989).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. L. Newhouse, D. Censor, T. Vontz, J. A. Cisneros, and B. B. Goldberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 34, 779 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 040503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photonics 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Syst. Comput. Japan (1)

K. Chihiro, H. Akimitsu, and N. Kouroku, Syst. Comput. Japan 19, 13 (1988).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (5734 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Beam geometry of PA Doppler bandwidth broadening. (b) Sequential A scans used to estimate the bandwidth broadening. (c) Bidirectional scanning for flow direction sensing. (d) Bandwidth broadening as a function of the flow speed of bovine blood. Solid line, theoretical curve fitted by Eq. (1). Error bar, standard deviation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PA imaging of S O 2 and blood flow in a mouse ear. MAP image of (a) structure and (b) S O 2 . Scale bar, 250 μ m . MAP image of blood flow (c) speed and (d) velocity with directions (see Media 1). (e) Trace of S O 2 and (f) blood flow speeds along the main vascular trunk. (g) Velocity profile indicated by the dashed line in (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Blood flow measurement in a chicken embryo. (a) Left, a transmission optical microscopy image of a chicken embryo (stage 16). Scale bar, 2 mm . Right, a region of interest ( 2 mm × 2 mm ) imaged at a higher magnification ( 32 × ) . Scale bar, 500 μ m . (b) PA image of the same area. Scale bar, 500 μ m . (d) Time course of the blood flow speed at the position indicated by the cross in (b).

Equations (1)

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B D ( t ) = 2 f 0 v c sin θ sin φ eff K T ( 1 j = 1 n A j ( t ) A j + 1 ( t ) j = 1 n A j ( t ) A j ( t ) ) 1 2 ,

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