Abstract

We have developed a high-resolution molecular imaging technique, pump–probe optical coherence microscopy (PPOCM), based on the fusion of pump–probe spectroscopy and optical coherence microscopy. We have demonstrated the prototype system on a fixed human skin sample containing a nodular melanoma. The results indicate that the PPOCM can clearly provide a strong contrast between the melanotic and amelanotic regions. Potential applications of the PPOCM imaging of melanin include the early diagnosis of melanoma and the mapping of tumor margins during excision. The technique may in general be applied to any biological chromophore with a known absorption spectrum.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1997

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

1990

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Buehler, C.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

Chen, B. J.

Chong, S. S.

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
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Dong, C. Y.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, A. D.

Fraser, S. E.

Fu, D.

Gillenwater, A.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
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Gratton, E.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

Gu, M.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

Haskell, R. C.

Hoeling, B. M.

Holtom, G. R.

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
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Huang, E.

Izatt, J. A.

Lu, S. J.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, T. E.

Min, W.

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, W. R.

Petersen, D. C.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

So, P. T. C.

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

Ungersma, S. E.

Wang, R.

Warren, W. S.

Williams, M. E.

Xie, X. S.

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Ye, T.

Yurtserver, G.

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

W. Min, S. J. Lu, S. S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Nature 461, 1105 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optik (Stuttgart)

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, Optik (Stuttgart) 86, 104 (1990).

C. Y. Dong, P. T. C. So, C. Buehler, and E. Gratton, Optik (Stuttgart) 106, 7 (1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the pump–probe optical coherence microscope: PMF, high-NA polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber; Obj, objective; BS, beam splitter; PBS, polarized beam splitter; LPF, long pass filter; SPF, short pass filter; DM, dichroic mirror; 2 × 2 , 2 × 2 50/50 fiber coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Representative source spectrum after exiting the PMF. (B) Representative source spectrum after the polarizer. The short wavelength band was used as the pump, and the long wavelength band was used as the probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Light microscope image of the fixed nodular melanoma sample. The scale bar is 100 μ m . The box indicates the approximate region where the OCM and PPOCM images were recorded. (B) OCM image. The scale bar is 20 μ m . (C) PPOCM image. (D) PPOCM/OCM ratio image depicting the relative melanin concentration. Images (B)–(D) have the same field of view and scale.

Equations (2)

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PSF OCM ( r , z ) = exp ( z 2 4   ln   2 ( Δ z ) 2 ) I ( z , r ) 2 .
PSF PPOCM ( r , z ) = exp ( z 2 4   ln   2 ( Δ z ) 2 ) I ( r , z ) 2 I ( r , z ) .

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