Abstract

We have developed a hybrid adaptive-optics visual simulator (HAOVS), combining two different phase-manipulation technologies: an optically addressed liquid-crystal phase modulator, relatively slow but capable of producing abrupt or discontinuous phase profiles; and a membrane deformable mirror, restricted to smooth profiles but with a temporal response allowing compensation of the eye’s aberration fluctuations. As proof of concept, a phase element structured as discontinuous radial sectors was objectively tested as a function of defocus, and a correction loop was closed in a real eye. To further illustrate the capabilities of the device for visual simulation, we recorded extended images of different stimuli through the system by means of an external camera replacing the subject’s eye. The HAOVS is specially intended as a tool for developing new ophthalmic optics elements, where it opens the possibility to explore designs with irregularities and/or discontinuities.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Artal, P.

Ayala, D. B.

Blain, C.

Bradley, C.

Bueno, J. M.

Burns, S. A.

Cao, Z.

Chen, L.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 34, 2628 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 17, 11013 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).
[PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gorceix, N.

Gustafsson, J.

Hampton, P.

Hilton, A.

Horváth, G.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Hu, L.

Keskin, O.

Li, D.

Liang, J. Z.

Lindacher, J. M.

Lundström, L.

Manzanera, S.

L. Lundström, S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, N. Gorceix, J. Gustafsson, P. Unsbo, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 15, 12654 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, J. M. Lindacher, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 15, 16177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).
[PubMed]

McLellan, J. S.

Miller, D. T.

Mu, Q.

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).
[PubMed]

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

Qi, X.

Singer, B.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unsbo, P.

Vargas-Martín, F.

Varjú, D.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

Williams, D. R.

Xuan, L.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Vision

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the HAOVS. See text for details on components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Wrapped phase map in 780 nm of the trifocal phase profile consisting of six discontinuous radial sectors. (b) Evolution of high-order rms for a real subject. The MDM correction close loop started around frame 18.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Wrapped phase map of the trifocal phase profile for 543 nm . (b) Examples of experimental PSFs. (c) Strehl ratio as a function of defocus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Combination of trifocal profile and ocular aberrations from a real eye. (b) Examples of experimental PSFs. (c) Strehl ratio as a function of defocus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images through the HAOVS with and without the trifocal profile (respectively, top and bottom rows for each stimulus). Angular dimensions: E-letter, 2.25 ° × 1.68 ° ; horse, 5.39 ° × 4.35 ° .

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