Abstract

In fluorescence imaging, both fluorescence yield and lifetime are of great importance. Traditionally, with the frequency-domain data, two parameters can be directly recovered through a nonlinear formulation. However, the reconstruction accuracy highly depends on initial guesses. To overcome this hurdle, we propose the linear scheme via an inverse complex-source formulation. Using the real and imaginary parts of the frequency-domain data, the proposed method is fully linear; it is not sensitive to initial guesses and is stable with high-level noise. Meanwhile, the algorithm is efficient, and the reconstruction takes one or a few iterations. In addition, the colocalization constraint due to the unique feature of fluorescence imaging is imposed to enhance algorithm performance. The algorithms are tested with simulated data.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, H. Yan, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, Appl. Opt. 48, 1328 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, Med. Phys. 32, 992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cong and G. Wang, Opt. Express 13, 9847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Eur. Radiol. 13, 195 (2003).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Achilefu, S.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akers, W.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Bacskai, B. J.

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Lett. 21, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Eur. Radiol. 13, 195 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

Choe, R.

Cong, A.

Corlu, A.

Culver, J. P.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Eppstein, M. J.

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, Med. Phys. 32, 992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs-Strauss, S. L.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, Med. Phys. 32, 992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulsen, G.

Hutchins, M.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Kepshire, D. S.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khayat, M.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, A. T.

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblond, F.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lin, Y.

Mincu, N.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nalcioglu, O.

Nothdurft, R. E.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Eur. Radiol. 13, 195 (2003).
[PubMed]

O’Hara, J. A.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

Patwardhan, S. V.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymond, S. B.

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

Schnall, M. D.

Schweiger, M.

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, Med. Phys. 32, 992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Eur. Radiol. 13, 195 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yan, H.

Ye, Y.

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Eur. Radiol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Eur. Radiol. 13, 195 (2003).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. T. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27, 1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

D. S. Kepshire, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, J. A. O’Hara, M. Hutchins, N. Mincu, F. Leblond, M. Khayat, H. Dehghani, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca and J. C. Rasmussen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 041303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Nothdurft, S. V. Patwardhan, W. Akers, Y. Ye, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 024004 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, Med. Phys. 32, 992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reconstruction results for case 1 (no background fluorescence).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstruction results for case 2 ( contrast = 2 ) with correct background as the initial guess.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstruction results for case 3 ( contrast = 2 ) with zero background as the initial guess.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction results for case 4 ( contrast = 2 ) with 5% noise, correct background, and zero background as the initial guess in methods 1 and 2, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstruction results for case 5 ( contrast = 2 ) with 10% noise, correct background, and zero background as the initial guess in methods 1 and 2, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Synthetic Phantom and Reconstruction Parameters a

Equations (6)

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· ( D x ϕ x ) + ( μ a x + i ω c ) ϕ x = q , · ( D m ϕ m ) + ( μ a m + i ω c ) ϕ m = μ a f 1 i ω τ ϕ x ,
X = arg min X F ( X ) Y 2 2 .
X n + 1 = X n + arg min δ X [ J n δ X ( Y J n X n ) 2 2 + λ δ X 2 2 ] ,
μ a f 1 i ω τ = q R + i q I .
X C = arg min X C J X C Y 2 2 .
δ X C , n = arg min δ X [ J δ X ( Y J X C , n ) 2 2 + λ δ X 2 2 ] , X C , n + 1 = X C , n + δ X C , n · χ Ω n .

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