Abstract

We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous measuring of corneal retraction, duration of down and up phases, total blinking duration, and average and peak speeds of the eyelids in both phases, thus providing a complete analysis of the blink’s transversal motions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

B. J. Kirkwood, Insight 31, 15 (2006).
[PubMed]

2003

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

O. Bergamin, S. Bizzarri, and D. Straumann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3438 (2002).

1992

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Aramideh, M.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, R.

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Bergamin, O.

O. Bergamin, S. Bizzarri, and D. Straumann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3438 (2002).

Bizzarri, S.

O. Bergamin, S. Bizzarri, and D. Straumann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3438 (2002).

Brassinga, P.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bresolin, N.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collejwin, H.

H. Collejwin, in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods, R.H. S.Carpenter and J.G.Robson, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 1998), pp. 245–285.

Collins, M.

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Visser, B. O.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evinger, C.

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Ferrario, V. F.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Galante, D.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gora, M.

Hakamata, N.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Huber, R.

Kaluzny, B. J.

Karnowski, K.

Kelly, S.

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkwood, B. J.

B. J. Kirkwood, Insight 31, 15 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kiroshita, S.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Kowalczyk, A.

Manning, K. A.

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Matsuda, J.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Nakamura, Y.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Park, K. S.

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, C. K.

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Rango, M.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Reits, D.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seawright, J.

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Serra, J.

J. Serra, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology (Academic, 1983).

Sforza, C.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. D.

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Shimamoto, T.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Smyth, W.

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Straumann, D.

O. Bergamin, S. Bizzarri, and D. Straumann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3438 (2002).

Sung, M. W.

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Szkulmowski, M.

Toyoda, H.

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

VanderWerf, F.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Clin. Exp. Optom.

M. Collins, W. Smyth, J. Seawright, and S. Kelly, Clin. Exp. Optom. 75, 38 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Insight

B. J. Kirkwood, Insight 31, 15 (2006).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

O. Bergamin, S. Bizzarri, and D. Straumann, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3438 (2002).

J. Neurophysiol.

F. VanderWerf, P. Brassinga, D. Reits, M. Aramideh, and B. O. de Visser, J. Neurophysiol. 89, 2784 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Evinger, M. D. Shaw, C. K. Peck, K. A. Manning, and R. Baker, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 323 (1984).
[PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

S. H. Choi, K. S. Park, M. W. Sung, and K. H. Kim, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi

Y. Nakamura, J. Matsuda, K. Suzuki, H. Toyoda, N. Hakamata, T. Shimamoto, and S. Kiroshita, Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 112, 1059 (2008).

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt.

C. Sforza, M. Rango, D. Galante, N. Bresolin, and V. F. Ferrario, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 28, 345(2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

J. Serra, Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology (Academic, 1983).

H. Collejwin, in Vision Research: A Practical Guide to Laboratory Methods, R.H. S.Carpenter and J.G.Robson, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 1998), pp. 245–285.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Filtering process of the anterior segment image: (a) original image, (b) image after thresholding, (c) image after an opening filter, (d) final image after a 2D median filtering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the process followed to obtain the kymogram. The frames are stacked in a hypermatrix. A transversal plane is then extracted from the structure. The figure also shows a detail of the kymogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye retraction and eyelid position (calculated from image brightness) obtained for one typical subject.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Velocity of eye retraction and eyelid movement computed for the subject in Fig. 3.

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