Abstract

We combine the evanescent-field scattering sensing mechanism with the fiber-loop ringdown detection scheme to create a new type of fiber optic index sensor using partially cladded single-mode fiber as a sensing element. A detection limit for an optical index change of 3.2×105 is demonstrated in the initial examination by using certified refractive index oils and laboratory-made sodium chloride solutions. This is the highest sensitivity for a fiber optic index sensor to date (to our knowledge) without using any chemical coating, delicate fiber components, and/or sophisticated architecture at the sensor head. A potential detection limit can be of the order of 106.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Han, F. Guo, and Y. Lu, Opt. Lett. 35, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, Opt. Lett. 33, 563 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H.-F. Randy, Reefkeeping 5, 11 (2006).

2005 (2)

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, Opt. Lett. 30, 1273 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Bang, O.

Barnes, J.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. S.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. C.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crudden, C. M.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreher, M.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

Guo, F.

Han, M.

Hong, W.

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

Jiang, M.

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loock, H.-P.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Lu, Y.

Mansuripur, M.

Ni, N.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Plett, M. K.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Pruneri, V.

Rabinowitz, P.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Randy, H.-F.

H.-F. Randy, Reefkeeping 5, 11 (2006).

Rindorf, L.

Shum, P.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, P. B.

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, Sensors 9, 7595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Y.

Wist, A. D.

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K. C.

Xia, L.

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, M. K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Tarsa, A. D. Wist, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4523 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 297 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Ni, C. C. Chan, L. Xia, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Jiang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, and B. Liu, Opt. Commun. 283, 249 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Reefkeeping (1)

H.-F. Randy, Reefkeeping 5, 11 (2006).

Sensors (1)

C. Wang, Sensors 9, 7595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schemetic of the FLRD-EF index sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The FLRD-EF index sensor shows a fast and reproducible response to the change of external media (two index oils).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The FLRD-EF index sensor senses different external media, including DI water and six certified index oils.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The FLRD-EF index sensor shows high-detection sensitivity. A detection limit of index change of 3.2 × 10 5 was demonstrated in sensing index-dependent saline solutions.

Equations (3)

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B = t r ( 1 τ 1 τ 0 ) = t r τ 0 Δ τ τ = 1 m Δ τ τ ,
Δ τ = τ 0 τ ,
B min = 1 m σ τ τ ¯ ,

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