Abstract

Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied to perform minimally invasive optical biopsy in clinical diagnostics. A critical barrier preventing current time-resolved techniques from clinical studies is their impractically long data acquisition time. We have developed an acousto-optic-tunable-filter (AOTF)-based time-resolved fluorescence spectrometer, which is capable of near real-time data acquisition. Both first-order diffraction beams are collected in this AOTF spectrometer, which results in significantly improved overall throughput. Using standard fluorescence dyes, we have demonstrated that this spectrometer can acquire 200nm time-resolved spectra within 4s, while its throughput is comparable to a grating-based spectrometer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Pitts and M. A. Mycek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3061 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Yuan, T. Papaioannou, and Q. Y. Fang, Opt. Lett. 33, 791 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Vishwanath, W. Zhong, M. Close, and M. A. Mycek, Opt. Express 14, 7776 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yuan, T. Papaioannou, and Q. Y. Fang, Opt. Lett. 33, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

K. Vishwanath, W. Zhong, M. Close, and M. A. Mycek, Opt. Express 14, 7776 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. D. Pitts and M. A. Mycek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anpo, M.

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ballini, J. P.

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Black, K. L.

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butte, P. V.

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Close, M.

Comelli, D.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D'Andrea, C.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deen, M. J.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elson, D. S.

Fang, Q.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q. Y.

Y. Yuan, T. Papaioannou, and Q. Y. Fang, Opt. Lett. 33, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faramarzpour, N.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glanzmann, T.

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hollars, C. W.

Jo, J. A.

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kfouri, M.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. W.-C.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Marcu, L.

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinov, O.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mycek, M. A.

Papaioannou, T.

Y. Yuan, T. Papaioannou, and Q. Y. Fang, Opt. Lett. 33, 791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pikul, B. K.

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts and M. A. Mycek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quevedo, P.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y. F.

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shastry, K.

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shirani, S.

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaitha, R.

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vishwanath, K.

Wagnieres, G.

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. Z.

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yong, W. H.

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, J. L.

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W.

Front. Biosci. (1)

W. H. Yong, P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, Front. Biosci. 11, 1255 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kfouri, O. Marinov, P. Quevedo, N. Faramarzpour, S. Shirani, L. W.-C. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. J. Deen, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. A. Jo, Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D'Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, J. Phys. D 35, R61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Z. Wang, Y. F. Shao, J. L. Zhang, and M. Anpo, Opt. Mater. 28, 1232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

T. Glanzmann, J. P. Ballini, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4067 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Fang, T. Papaioannou, J. A. Jo, R. Vaitha, K. Shastry, and L. Marcu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pitts and M. A. Mycek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematics for the AOTF-based time-resolved fluorescence spectrometer. The inset shows the details of the AOTF setup. L, collimation lens; F, long-pass filter; M1 and M2, concave mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-integrated fluorescence spectra (solid curve) of (a) 10 4 M 9-cyanoanthracene (9-CA) and fluorescein solutions and (b) mixture solution of 10 4 M fluorescein and 10 5 M 9-cyanoanthracene. Average fluorescence lifetimes across the emission spectra are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the throughputs of the AOTF spectrometer and the grating-based monochromator. The 1 nm difference in their spectral peaks reflects the relatively low spectral resolution of both systems.

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