Abstract

Single-shot digital holographic microscopy with an adjustable field of view and magnification was demonstrated by using a tabletop 32.8nm soft-x-ray laser. The holographic images were reconstructed with a two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform algorithm, and a new configuration of imaging was developed to overcome the pixel-size limit of the recording device without reducing the effective NA. The image of an atomic-force-microscope cantilever was reconstructed with a lateral resolution of 480nm, and the phase contrast image of a 20nm carbon mesh foil demonstrated that profiles of sample thickness can be reconstructed with few-nanometers uncertainty. The ultrashort x-ray pulse duration combined with single-shot capability offers great advantage for flash imaging of delicate samples.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Brown, S. B.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassou, K.

Caumes, J. P.

Chen, S.-Y.

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Chien, T.-Y.

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Chou, M.-C.

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, H.-H.

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Cohen, O.

Fajardo, M.

Feder, R.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gautier, J.

Howells, M.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-Y.

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Jacobsen, C.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kazamias, S.

Kern, D. P.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kos-Rosset, M.

Lee, C.-H.

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-A.

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.-Y.

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Lin, P.-H.

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marconi, M. C.

Matthews, D. L.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McQuaid, K.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menoni, C. S.

Merdji, H.

Morlens, A. S.

Murnane, M. M.

Nelson, K. A.

Nilson, D. G.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rey, G.

Rocca, J. J.

Rothman, S.

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siemens, M. E.

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tobey, R. I.

Trebes, J. E.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-E.

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wachulak, P. W.

Wang, J.

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

Whelan, D. A.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Yang, L.-S.

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Zeitoun, P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H.-H. Chu, S.-Y. Huang, L.-S. Yang, T.-Y. Chien, Y.-F. Xiao, J.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, and J. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 193 (2004).

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

Y.-F. Xiao, H.-H. Chu, H.-E. Tsai, C.-H. Lee, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 11, L21 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P.-H. Lin, M.-C. Chou, C.-A. Lin, H.-H. Chu, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 76, 053817 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, R. Feder, K. McQuaid, and S. Rothman, Science 238, 514 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, Science 238, 517 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) the experimental setup and (b) the working principle of soft-x-ray digital holographic microscopy. XCM, x-ray concave mirror; XFM, x-ray flat mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) X-ray hologram and (b) reconstructed intensity image of the AFM cantilever with a magnification of 29.7. (c) shows the intensity line scan at the position marked by the dashed line in (b) for the measurement of cantilever thickness. (d) is an enlarged image of the AFM tip. The line scan of the AFM tip at the position marked by the solid line is plotted in (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) X-ray holograms and (d)–(f) reconstructed intensity images of the carbon foil with magnifications of 17.9, 28.7, and 54.6, respectively. The scale bar in each figure is 20 μ m . The optical-microscope image of the carbon foil is shown in (g). (h) shows the reconstructed phase image of the carbon foil with a magnification of 54.6.

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