Abstract

We report remote manipulation of micronanomachines containing magnetic nanoparticles. Surface-modified Fe3O4 nanocrystals were synthesized as doping agents of the photopolymerizable resin, which was pinpoint written by femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization to create microsprings. Owing to the nature of superparamagnetism of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, force exerted to the microsprings relies sensitively on the field gradient of the external ferromagnet, and various motions like elongation, bending, and swing are achieved in a well-controllable remote manner. As a noncontact, sensitive, easy, and environmentally friendly approach, the magnetic driving of micronanomachines may play an important role for nano and biological applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. J. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. Schüth, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Chen, Q. D.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. Q.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Getzlaff, M.

M. Getzlaff, Fundamentals of Magnetism (Springer, 2008).

Gu, M.

M. J. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M.

M. Hill, XRD Handbook of Chemistry, 13th ed. (Analysis Center, 1985).

Ikuta, K.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, U.

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169 (2004).

K. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korogi, H.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. F.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, A. H.

A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. Schüth, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Nakanishi, S.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L. G.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salabas, E. L.

A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. Schüth, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schüth, F.

A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. Schüth, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169 (2004).

K. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, X. W.

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M. J.

M. J. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. N.

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. Y.

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (3)

M. J. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Jeong, X. W. Teng, Y. Wang, H. Yang, and Y. N. Xia, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 33 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, S. Nakanishi, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 20, 914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169 (2004).

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

A. H. Lu, E. L. Salabas, and F. Schüth, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Takada, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4653 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polym. Adv. Technol. (1)

K. S. Lee, D. Y. Yang, S. H. Park, and R. H. Kim, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Getzlaff, Fundamentals of Magnetism (Springer, 2008).

M. Hill, XRD Handbook of Chemistry, 13th ed. (Analysis Center, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme for preparation of surfactant oleic acid ( OA ) Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, its doping to photopolymerizable resin, femtosecond laser fabrication of microdevices, and magnetic driving of the devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of synthesized powders: (a) TEM image and (b) XRD curves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hysteresis loop of OA Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The left inset is an atomic force microscope image of the surface of the solidified photopolymer after doping, and the right inset shows the photograph of the particles attracted by a ferromagnet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of a magnetically remote-driven microspring: (a) the microspring at its natural state, (b) elongated, (c) right bent, and (d) left bent.

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