Abstract

We have studied the possible nonlinear effects on tissue and model substance with emphasis on self-focusing effect. The nature of this effect and its biological consequences are discussed. We have studied how the self-focusing action changes with applied laser power and its effect on various depths of the biological materials. Critical power for biological material is calculated, and the peak power required for surgical purposes is found to be greater than the critical power. Furthermore, we discuss other possible effects that self-focusing might have on refractive surgery.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

2006

P. Theer and W. Denk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, Opt. Express 13, 5750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M. T. Kim, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 10, 196 (2003).

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Rulliere, Femtosecond Laser Pulses (Springer, 1999).

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. H. Niemz, Laser Tissue Interactions (Springer, 1996).

1992

B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, and M. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2134A, 2 (1992).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

1988

1984

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

1983

1975

J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barcikowski, S.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baruch, G.

Bille, J. F.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

Buckle, R.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Chisholm, A. D.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinar, H.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cinar, H. N.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

Donitzky, C.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drommer, W.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, J.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feit, D.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

Fibich, G.

Fleck, J. A.

Fork, R. L.

Friedman, B.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, E. N.

Harzic, R. L.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heisterkamp, A.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

Horvath, C.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joslin, E.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kermani, O.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. M. T.

Kim, B. M.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konig, K.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, R. M.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

Loesel, F. H.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lyden, P. D.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maatz, G.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mamom, T.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Meyhofer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

M. H. Niemz, Laser Tissue Interactions (Springer, 1996).

Nishimura, N.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M. T. Kim, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 10, 196 (2003).

Roach, W. P.

B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, and M. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2134A, 2 (1992).

Rockwell, B. A.

B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, and M. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2134A, 2 (1992).

Rogers, M.

B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, and M. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2134A, 2 (1992).

Rubenchik, A.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rulliere, C.

C. Rulliere, Femtosecond Laser Pulses (Springer, 1999).

Sank, C. V.

Schaffer, C. B.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M. T. Kim, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 10, 196 (2003).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Silva, L.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theer, P.

Tomlinson, W.

Tsai, P. S.

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsynkov, S.

Welling, H.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wullner, C.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakar, A. B.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, R.

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Mamom, O. Kermani, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. M. Kim, D. Feit, A. Rubenchik, E. Joslin, P. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. Silva, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, J. Opt. A 2, 59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Med. Laser Appl.

R. L. Harzic, R. Buckle, C. Wullner, C. Donitzky, and K. Konig, Med. Laser Appl. 20, 233 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, B. Friedman, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, Nat. Methods 3, 99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. B. Yakar, Nature 432, 822 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

A. P. Joglekar, H. H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, and M. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2134A, 2 (1992).

Prog. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).

M. H. Niemz, Laser Tissue Interactions (Springer, 1996).

C. Rulliere, Femtosecond Laser Pulses (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cuts in gelatine with different laser energies 1, 2, and 3 μ J .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of change in self-focusing distance on applied laser power in gelatine at 150 fs pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for treating pig eyes [6].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT image of the ex vivo pig eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of change in self-focusing distance on applied laser power in ex vivo pig eyes at 150 fs pulse.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Z f = 2 n 0 0.61 ω 0 2 λ P cr P ,
P cr = ( 1.22 ) 2 λ 2 c 128 n 2 ,

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