Abstract

It has been shown that after a visible stimulus, optical oscillations of nearly all cone photoreceptors can be observed using long coherence length light and in a few cones using short coherence length light. Here, we show that after exposure to a visible stimulus, a short coherence length imaging source reveals light-evoked oscillation signals in a large number of cones. More than 80% of cones in a given retinal area are activated (modulation in the reflectance signal) after stimulation, and the pattern of their activation can be subjectively classified into one of four categories. The application of light-evoked signal detection techniques for in vivo retinal imaging may prove useful for assessing the functional status of cones in normal and diseased retinae.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vision Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 15, 16141 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, Opt. Express 14, 4552 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 36, 2229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, Vision Res. 35, 2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

J. L. Schnapf and R. N. McBurney, Nature 287, 239 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

K. Harary, J. M. Brown, and L. Pinto, Science 202, 1083 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vision Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 36, 2229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, Vision Res. 35, 2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

K. Harary, J. M. Brown, and L. Pinto, Science 202, 1083 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W.

George, J. S.

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hanazono, G.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harary, K.

K. Harary, J. M. Brown, and L. Pinto, Science 202, 1083 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, K. P.

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, Vision Res. 35, 2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kahlert, M.

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardon, R.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krause, A.

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, Y. H.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McBurney, R. N.

J. L. Schnapf and R. N. McBurney, Nature 287, 239 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Miyake, Y.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vision Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepperberg, D. R.

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflug, R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinto, L.

K. Harary, J. M. Brown, and L. Pinto, Science 202, 1083 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Roorda, A.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapf, J. L.

J. L. Schnapf and R. N. McBurney, Nature 287, 239 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vision Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soliz, P.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Tanifuji, M.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorn, K. E.

Ts'o, D.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsubota, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Kraats, J.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 36, 2229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 36, 2229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yao, X. C.

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zimmerman, B.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. L. Schnapf and R. N. McBurney, Nature 287, 239 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Pepperberg, M. Kahlert, A. Krause, and K. P. Hofmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 5531 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

K. Harary, J. M. Brown, and L. Pinto, Science 202, 1083 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, Vision Res. 36, 2229 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and D. G. Birch, Vision Res. 35, 2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vision Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of high-speed AO retinal camera. BS, beam splitter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; SHWS, Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor; P, pupil plane; L1–L17, achromatic lenses; M1–M3, flat mirrors; S1–S3, spherical mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Processing retinal images from the Medical College of Wisconsin Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscope. (a) Raw image from the CCD camera ( 0.5 ° × 0.5 ° ) . (b) Noise image comprised of dust, beam profile, and CCD circuit. (c) Processed retinal image (noise removed, single frame).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visible-light induced changes in cone reflectance. (a),(b) Averaged images of the cone mosaic derived from a registered stack of 55 individual frames. The size of each image is 0.5 ° × 0.5 ° . (c),(d) Optical reflectance profiles of cones marked in (a) and (b). RMS ratios for each cone are listed on the plot in the legend. Solid bar indicates duration of visible light stimulus.

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