Abstract

Recent progress in optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows imaging dynamic structures and fluid flow within scattering tissue, such as the beating heart and blood flow in mouse embryos. Accurate representation and analysis of these dynamic behaviors require reducing the noise of the acquired data. Although noise can be reduced by averaging multiple neighboring pixels in space or time, such operations reduce the effective spatial or temporal resolution that can be achieved. We have developed a computational postprocessing technique to restore image sequences of cyclically moving structures that preserves frame rate and spatial resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved by combining images from multiple cycles that have been synchronized with a temporally elastic registration procedure. Here we show how this technique can be applied to OCT images of the circulatory system in cultured mouse embryos. Our technique significantly improves the SNR while preserving temporal and spatial resolution.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, Opt. Express 16, 12313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, Opt. Commun. 269, 247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

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J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Adler, D. C.

Braun, S.

S. Braun, Acustica 32, 69 (1975).

Cable, A.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Christensen, U.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickinson, M.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, Opt. Lett. 34, 986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Efimov, I.

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, C.

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forouhar, A.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gargesha, M.

Gharib, M.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Ghosn, M.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hewko, M. D.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, Opt. Commun. 269, 247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hougaard, J.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivers, S.

Jenkins, M. W.

Jian, Z.

Jiang, J.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, T. M.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Larin, K.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, Opt. Lett. 34, 986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larina, I.

I. Larina, S. Ivers, S. Syed, M. Dickinson, and K. Larin, Opt. Lett. 34, 986 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, M.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liebling, M.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044020-1-11 (2009).

Popescu, D. P.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, Opt. Commun. 269, 247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, B.

Ripplinger, C.

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

H. Wang and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rugonyi, S.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044020-1-11 (2009).

Sander, B.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soliman, W.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, Opt. Commun. 269, 247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sudheendran, N.

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Syed, S.

Thomadsen, J.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thornburg, K.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044020-1-11 (2009).

Thrane, L.

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B.

Vermot, J.

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044020-1-11 (2009).

Webb, B.

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. L.

Xiang, S.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Yu, Z.

Yung, K.

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acustica (1)

S. Braun, Acustica 32, 69 (1975).

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

B. Sander, M. Larsen, L. Thrane, J. Hougaard, and T. M. Jørgensen, Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. Efimov, and A. Rollins, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Larina, N. Sudheendran, M. Ghosn, J. Jiang, A. Cable, K. Larin, and M. Dickinson, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 060506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Wang, K. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044020-1-11 (2009).

J. Schmitt, S. Xiang, and K. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, Opt. Commun. 269, 247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

M. Liebling, J. Vermot, A. Forouhar, M. Gharib, M. Dickinson, and S. Fraser, in IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2006), pp. 1156.
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1747 KB)     

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multicycle noise reduction: (a) raw sequence, (b) cutting, (c) temporal registration, (d) noise reduction via sample median along the r dimension.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frames from SS-OCT of (a) raw, (b) 3 × 3 spatial moving average, (c) four-frame temporally binned, and (d) noise-reduced (via proposed multicycle sample median) sequences of the beating heart in an E9.5 mouse embryo. Arrow indicates structures that were previously indistinct owing to noise. Scalebars are 200 μ m . Pixel intensity variation [arbitrary units (AU)] over time at the marked location is shown in each case. (e) Outlines of permanent structures. Boxes indicate regions of interest (ROIs). Temporal extents of each ROI are also shown. See also Media 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SNR, CNR, and ENL of Data in Fig. 2

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I m ( x , t ) = I p ( x , t ) + I t ( x , t ) ,
I p ( x , t ) I p ( x , t + T ) ,
I c ( x , r , t ) = I m ( x , T + ( r 1 ) σ T + t ) , 0 t < L ,
Q { w r } = ( 1 λ ) 0 T | I 0 ( x , t ) I c ( x , r , w r ( t ) ) | d t d x + λ 0 T | d d t w r ( t ) 1 | d t .
I ̃ p ( x , t ) = Median ( { I 0 ( x , t ) , I c ( x , r , w ¯ r ( t ) ) 1 r R } ) ,
0 t < T .

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