Abstract

Adaptive optics flood-illuminated imaging technology has been successfully used to correct the wavefront aberration of human eyes to obtain high-resolution retinal images. However, because of the pollution of various types of noise and the degradation caused by residual aberration, the noisy images are not very clear and weak edges are difficult to discern. To reveal the abundant detail hidden by large-scale noise and to enhance low-contrast edges, a hybrid filtering and enhancment method is proposed combining bilateral filtering, coherence diffusion, and edge enhancement. Results show that it is effective to improve the visual quality of retinal cell images.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, Opt. Express 8, 631 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Doble, Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2, 205 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Evans, R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Oliver, and J. S. Werner, Opt. Express 17, 13768 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Weicker, IEEE Trans. Comp. Vis. 31, 111 (1999).
  8. C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. On Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998).
  9. C. Harris and M. Stephens, Proc. 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, 147 (1988).

2009

2005

N. Doble, Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2, 205 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1999

J. Weicker, IEEE Trans. Comp. Vis. 31, 111 (1999).

1997

Abd-Elmoniem, K. Z.

K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Doble, N.

N. Doble, Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2, 205 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. W.

Harris, C.

C. Harris and M. Stephens, Proc. 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, 147 (1988).

Hofer, H.

Hu, Y. Y.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. H.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. M.

Kadah, Y. M.

K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. Y.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Ling, N.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manduchi, R.

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. On Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998).

Miller, D. T.

Oliver, S. S.

Rao, X. J.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Stephens, M.

C. Harris and M. Stephens, Proc. 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, 147 (1988).

Tomasi, C.

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. On Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998).

Wang, C.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weicker, J.

J. Weicker, IEEE Trans. Comp. Vis. 31, 111 (1999).

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Youssef, A. B. M.

K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y. D.

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Expert Rev. Med. Devices

N. Doble, Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2, 205 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Z. Abd-Elmoniem, A. B. M. Youssef and Y. M. Kadah, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 997 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Comp. Vis.

J. Weicker, IEEE Trans. Comp. Vis. 31, 111 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

N. Ling, Y. D. Zhang, X. J. Rao, X. Y. Li, C. Wang, Y. Y. Hu, and W. H. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4825, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. On Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998).

C. Harris and M. Stephens, Proc. 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, 147 (1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of hybrid filtering and enhancing method for AO retinal cell images, in which CD is stopped by MSE between two adjacent diffused images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stray-light estimation: A, estimation zones in AO retinal cell image; B, histogram of stray light in zones.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffusion behaviors used in different image regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raw retinal cell image obtained with pupil dilation: A, original AO image; B, interim result of BF; C, interim result of CD; D, final result of our method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raw retinal cell image obtained with dark adaption: A, original AO image; B, final result of our method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radially averaged retinal image power spectra: A, spectra of Figs. 4A and 4B; B, spectra of Figs. 5A and 5B.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B x , y = k x , y i , j G I i , j exp [ ( x i ) 2 + ( y j ) 2 2 σ 2 + ( I x , y I i , j ) 2 2 δ 2 ] ,
δ = i = 0 m 1 j = 0 n 1 ( g i , j g ¯ ) 2 m × n ,
I ( i , j , t ) t = div ( D I i , j ) ,
C ( x , y ) = [ U V ] [ λ min 0 0 λ max ] [ U T V T ] ,
D ( x , y ) = [ U V ] [ β min 0 0 β max ] [ U T V T ] ,
β min = { 0 , if λ max λ min < δ min , λ min > δ max α , else }
β max = { α × ( 1 ( λ max λ min λ max ) 2 ) if β min 0 0 , else } .
R = a × E ( I ) + b × B ( I ) + c × I ,
B ( x , y ) = i , j M I i , j × g ( i , j ) M 1 i , j M i , j M 1 I i , j × g ( i , j ) M 2 M 1 ,
MSE = 1 m × n i , j m . n ( I t ( i , j ) I t 1 ( i , j ) ) 2 ,

Metrics