Abstract

A holographic optical lithography setup with extremely small longitudinal spherical aberration is described. The setup is used for the fabrication of holographic diffractive optical elements intended to collect light emitted from a fluorescence spot located on a biochip surface. A key feature of the optical setup is its ability to simulate a point-source-like fluorescence spot. A detailed description of the setup together with its optical properties are provided. The fluorescence light collection efficiency of the holographic diffractive optical elements produced using this setup is demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Hecht, Optics (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2002).
  2. Z. Xiao-qun, B. N. K. Ann, and K. S. Seong, Appl. Opt. 39, 1148 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Kiontke and R. Steinkopf, Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020D (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Macko and M. P. Whelan, Opt. Lett. 33, 2614 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).
  8. H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”
  17. S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

S. R. Kiontke and R. Steinkopf, Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020D (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Macko and M. P. Whelan, Opt. Lett. 33, 2614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

Z. Xiao-qun, B. N. K. Ann, and K. S. Seong, Appl. Opt. 39, 1148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Ann, B. N. K.

Baldini, F.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blue, R.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, A.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chevolot, Y.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

Cloarec, J.-P.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

Craighead, H.

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, H. J.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feely, C. A.

Frohmann, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giannetti, A.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamrle, J.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2002).

Howard, R. G.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jallapuram, R.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kent, N.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiontke, S. R.

S. R. Kiontke and R. Steinkopf, Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krogmeier, J. R.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, J. W.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurenceau, E.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

MacCraith, B. D.

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”

Macko, P.

Martin, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonagh, C.

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”

McEvoy, H.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McEvoy, H. M.

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”

Morris, T. S.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O'Driscoll, S.

S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”

Orlic, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pawlak, M.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phaner-Goutorbe, M.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

Polerecky, L.

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polerecký, L.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porro, G.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckstuhl, T.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, I.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeger, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seong, K. S.

Seward, G.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souteyrand, E.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

Steinkopf, R.

S. R. Kiontke and R. Steinkopf, Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H.

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trono, C.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinberger, S. R.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, M. P.

Xiao-qun, Z.

Yantz, G. R.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ITBM-RBM News (1)

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM News 29, 105 (2008).

Lab Chip (1)

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. Craighead, Nature 442, 387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pharmacogenomics (1)

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. M. McEvoy, R. Blue, N. Kent, L. Polerecky, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, Proc. SPIE 5826, 512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kiontke and R. Steinkopf, Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics (Pearson Addison Wesley, 2002).

S. O'Driscoll, H. M. McEvoy, C. McDonagh, andB. D. MacCraith (Optical Sensors Laboratory, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland) are preparing a manuscript to be titled “Enhanced fluorescence collection efficiency from a planar substrate optical sensor using a refractive optical element.”

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup. Left, BE, beam expander, BS, beam splitter; M, mirrors; BC, beam coupler; L B , wavefront B forming lens ( f = 50 mm ) . Right, detail of the optical set composed of a condenser lens ( L C ) , half-ball lens ( L A ) , separating glass block (GB), and glass chip with HDOE layer. ( L A , GB, and chip were assembled by index-matching gel).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, ray tracer image of previous setup highlighting the significant LSA. Right, displacement of the focal point along the optical axis as aperture changed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, ray tracer image of current aberration-free setup. Right, displacement of the focal point along the optical axis as aperture changed ( LSA = 5.4 × 10 4 mm ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left, LSA of the current setup (left axes) as a function of the thickness of the separating GB, and the L C L A distance required for bringing the focal point back at the chip/BG interface. Right, dependence of the intensity of the light diffracted by the HDOEs as a function of the L C L A distance used at the HDOEs recording.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of surface-bound fluorescence imaged by the HDOE on a CCD array through a bandpass filter. The dimension of the CCD picture is 4 × 4 mm. The chip-CCD distance was 11 mm. Right side, vertical cuttings of the CCD pictures approximately in the middle, with and without the HDOE on the chip (corrected for the background).

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